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What is Science. 1. The systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Science. 1. The systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Science

2 1. The systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles based on these facts. 1. The systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles based on these facts. 2. The organized body of knowledge that is derived from such observations and that can be verified or tested by further investigation. 2. The organized body of knowledge that is derived from such observations and that can be verified or tested by further investigation. 3. Any specific branch of this general body of knowledge, such as biology, physics, geology, or astronomy. 3. Any specific branch of this general body of knowledge, such as biology, physics, geology, or astronomy.

3 How is research done? Need to first-observe something and collect data (quantitative=numbers, qualitative=things that can’t be described with numbers like characteristics Need to first-observe something and collect data (quantitative=numbers, qualitative=things that can’t be described with numbers like characteristics Then you need to infer an interpretation on the data (inference= logical) Then you need to infer an interpretation on the data (inference= logical)

4 Scientific Method –Ask a Question –Do Background Research –Construct a Hypothesis (a proposed explanation for what you observe) –Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment –Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion –Communicate Your Results

5 How do we test Find a way to test the hypothesis Find a way to test the hypothesis Figure out a way that when you test that only one variable is changed at a time Figure out a way that when you test that only one variable is changed at a time A variable is something that can be changed in the test (i.e.: temperature, water, O 2 ) A variable is something that can be changed in the test (i.e.: temperature, water, O 2 ) Have one controlled experiment (variables not changed) and an other test the manipulated experiment (variables changed). And the out come is called the responding variable Have one controlled experiment (variables not changed) and an other test the manipulated experiment (variables changed). And the out come is called the responding variable

6 What is Biology Biology is the study of life Biology is the study of life What are the characteristics of living things? What are the characteristics of living things? –Living things are made up of cells. –Living things reproduce –Living things are based on a universal genetic code. (DNA) –Living things grow and develop –Living things respond to their environment –Living things maintain a stable internal environment –Taken as a group, living thing change over time.

7 Factors in the environment Abiotic factors: it is the non living things in a biosphere. Abiotic factors: it is the non living things in a biosphere. Biotic factors: are the living things on the earth so plants, animals and fungi (biological factors). Biotic factors: are the living things on the earth so plants, animals and fungi (biological factors). Both abiotic and biotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the success of an ecosystem. Both abiotic and biotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the success of an ecosystem.

8 Levels of Organization Molecules Cells Groups of cells (tissues, organs) Organism (Individual living thing) Population (group of organisms of one type that live in the same area) Community (population that live together is a defined area) Ecosystem (community and its nonliving surroundings) Biom (a group of ecosystems that have the same kind of climate Biosphere (parts of the earth that contain the biom: Hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere) Molecules Cells Groups of cells (tissues, organs) Organism (Individual living thing) Population (group of organisms of one type that live in the same area) Community (population that live together is a defined area) Ecosystem (community and its nonliving surroundings) Biom (a group of ecosystems that have the same kind of climate Biosphere (parts of the earth that contain the biom: Hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere)

9 Food Chains and Food Webs

10 What is a food chain? What is a food chain? –a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.

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12 What is a food web? –They are more complex than food chains. –Is where the organism can be eaten by more than one other organism.

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14 Autotroph-it is an organism that can produce its own food from sunlight or through chemical reactions (i.e. plants some algae, and certain bacteria) Autotroph-it is an organism that can produce its own food from sunlight or through chemical reactions (i.e. plants some algae, and certain bacteria) Photosynthesis-it is the process by which an autotroph get their energy from the sun. It takes CO2 and H2O and makes it into O2. Photosynthesis-it is the process by which an autotroph get their energy from the sun. It takes CO2 and H2O and makes it into O2. Chemosynthesis-Is when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates (which are then turned into energy) Bacteria do this. Chemosynthesis-Is when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates (which are then turned into energy) Bacteria do this. Types of Organisms

15 Heterotrophic-it is an organism that has to get its food from eating something else also called consumers. Heterotrophic-it is an organism that has to get its food from eating something else also called consumers. Herbivores (things that eat only plants) Herbivores (things that eat only plants) Carnivores ( things that only eat meat) Carnivores ( things that only eat meat) Omnivores ( things that eat both plants and animals) Omnivores ( things that eat both plants and animals) Detritivores( mites, earthworms, snails, crabs; things that feed on plants and animal remains and other dead matter), decomposers (break down organic matter) Detritivores( mites, earthworms, snails, crabs; things that feed on plants and animal remains and other dead matter), decomposers (break down organic matter)

16 Trophic Levels Producers- first level, they are autotrophs (things that get their food/ energy from the sun) these are plants and some bacteria. Producers- first level, they are autotrophs (things that get their food/ energy from the sun) these are plants and some bacteria. Primary consumers- the second level, these are the things that eat the producers, they are herbivores (things that eat only plants). Primary consumers- the second level, these are the things that eat the producers, they are herbivores (things that eat only plants). Secondary consumers- these are small carnivores (things that eat only meat) like snakes. Secondary consumers- these are small carnivores (things that eat only meat) like snakes. Tertiary consumer-these are large carnivores, like eagles, lions, etc. Tertiary consumer-these are large carnivores, like eagles, lions, etc.

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19 Energy Pyramids Is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Generally each time something is consumed it loses 90% of its potential energy. Only 10% is passed on to the next consumer Generally each time something is consumed it loses 90% of its potential energy. Only 10% is passed on to the next consumer So where does the 90% go? – heat, dead organic matter So where does the 90% go? – heat, dead organic matter

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21 Water Cycle Precipitation-snow, rain, sleet, hail Precipitation-snow, rain, sleet, hail Sublimation- is a transition from the solid to gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage Sublimation- is a transition from the solid to gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage Evapotranspiration- is the evaporated water that is lost from plants Evapotranspiration- is the evaporated water that is lost from plants Evaporation-water changes from a liquid to a gas Evaporation-water changes from a liquid to a gas Condensation-is water in a gas stage changing to liquid Condensation-is water in a gas stage changing to liquid Infiltration- downward movement of water through soil Infiltration- downward movement of water through soil Runoff- the flow of water over the land Runoff- the flow of water over the land Stream flow Stream flow

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25 Carbon Cycle Main factors in the carbon cycle Main factors in the carbon cycle 1. Photosynthesis- plant taking in CO 2 and releasing O Respiration- things taking in O 2 and releasing CO Decomposition- dead organic matter being broken down and releasing both CO 2 and O 2. Also under pressure can be changed into fossil fuels and coal, help store carbon under ground. 4. Erosion and volcanic activity release CO 2 into the atmosphere and the ocean. 5. Human activities such as cutting and burning of forests, mining, burning fossil fuels, releasing CO 2 in to the atmosphere

26 Carbon Cycle

27 Nitrogen Cycle All things need nitrogen to make amino acids which build proteins All things need nitrogen to make amino acids which build proteins Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78% of the atmosphere Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78% of the atmosphere Other Nitrogen compounds are found in waste produced by organisms, dead and decaying organic matter Other Nitrogen compounds are found in waste produced by organisms, dead and decaying organic matter Nitrogen is fixed by lightning Nitrogen is fixed by lightning Bacteria fix most of the nitrogen Bacteria fix most of the nitrogen

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30 Greenhouse effect What is the greenhouse effect? What is the greenhouse effect? Is it a good or bad thing? Is it a good or bad thing? Factors that contribute to the greenhouse effect- CFC’s, cars, fires, factories, cloud cover, etc. Factors that contribute to the greenhouse effect- CFC’s, cars, fires, factories, cloud cover, etc. What is Global warming? What is Global warming? Do either of these really happen? Do either of these really happen?

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32 Competition What do things compete for? What do things compete for? Food Food Space- Plants and animals Space- Plants and animals Mates Mates

33 Predator Prey relationships When the amount of food increases a year or so later so does the amount of predators. When the amount of food increases a year or so later so does the amount of predators. Predators generally will not hunt their food into extinction. Predators generally will not hunt their food into extinction. Types of hunting- solitary, and pack Types of hunting- solitary, and pack Specificity Specificity Migration Migration Hibernation Hibernation

34 Symbiosis What is symbiosis? What is symbiosis? It is interactions between species Mutualistic- is when different species interact but both benefit from the interaction. Mutualistic- is when different species interact but both benefit from the interaction. Parasitic- is when different species interact but one of them is harmed by the other Parasitic- is when different species interact but one of them is harmed by the other Commensal- is when different species interact but only one gains from the interaction Commensal- is when different species interact but only one gains from the interaction

35 Mutualism Cleaner shrimp cleaning a zebra moray eel

36 Parasitism

37 Commensalism

38 Succession There are 2 kinds of succession primary and secondary There are 2 kinds of succession primary and secondary Primary succession is when nothing has been there before there was no soil before hand. Like when a new island is formed from a volcano and things start to live there. Primary succession is when nothing has been there before there was no soil before hand. Like when a new island is formed from a volcano and things start to live there. Secondary succession is when there is soil present and things move in. Secondary succession is when there is soil present and things move in.

39 Things that cause succession Forest fires- help clean up the area. Not a bad thing Forest fires- help clean up the area. Not a bad thing Volcanoes- create primary succession Volcanoes- create primary succession Floods Floods Wind storms Wind storms Human involvement Human involvement

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43 Biotic and Abiotic interactions Abiotic factors- pH, temperature, weather, precipitation Abiotic factors- pH, temperature, weather, precipitation Biotic factors- animal population, plant population Biotic factors- animal population, plant population


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