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Ecology. What is it? Definition: The study of interactions between living and non-living things in the environment in which they live Abiotic = non-living.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology. What is it? Definition: The study of interactions between living and non-living things in the environment in which they live Abiotic = non-living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology

2 What is it? Definition: The study of interactions between living and non-living things in the environment in which they live Abiotic = non-living Biotic = living

3 Why study ecology? The research provides us with information that is necessary for understanding and resolving many of the environmental and ecological issues that confront us like: Overpopulation Species extinction Global Warming pollution

4 2 Ecological Truths: Our planet does not only belong to humans but also to many other forms of life. The health of the human population depends on the well-being of much of that life.

5 Ecosystems Definition: An ecosystem is a collection of producers, consumers, an decomposers interacting with one another and their environment. Example: Greenfield Park

6 Organization of Matter 6 levels 1. Organism: an individual living thing

7 Organization 2. Species: a group of organisms that can reproduce

8 Organization 3. Population: A group of organisms, of the same species, living in the same area

9 Levels of Organization 4. Community: The interaction of ALL living things (plants and animals) in a given space.

10 Levels of Organization 5. Ecosystem: The interaction between a community and its non-living parts (soil, air, water, etc.)

11 Levels of Organization 6. Biosphere: All the living areas of the Earth

12 Parts of An Ecosystem Abiotic = non-living Air Water Soil Rocks Biotic = living Plants Animals Protists Bacteria Fungi

13 Organisms in an Ecosystem 3 Kinds of Organisms: Primary Producer (autotroph): use sun’s energy to make food Chemotrophs (a group of bacteria) harvest their energy from chemicals.

14 Organisms in an Ecosystem 2. Consumer (heterotroph): Obtain energy by eating other organisms Herbivore: eat only plants Carnivore: eat only other animals Omnivore: eats plants and animals

15 Organisms in an Ecosystem 3. Decomposer: Get energy by breaking down dead matter

16 Organisms together in an Ecosystem

17 Habitat Each organism lives in a habitat Definition: the natural physical environment in which an organism or population influences and utilizes in order to live Each organism has a “role” in their habitat

18 Niche Definition: the specific activities and relationships to other organisms a species has while obtaining and using the resources needed to survive and reproduce Example: Lions and honey bees

19 Niche Cont’d Niche Competition 2 Species partially share a niche: both compete in the overlapping parts of the niche for resources, nesting sites, or territory. If the overlap is minimal, both species can coexist. Example: Lions and hyenas ttack/

20 Niche Cont’d 2 Species have the same niche: both compete head to head in the niche for resources, nesting sites, or territory. One of the species will be superior to the other in utilizing the niche. The 2nd species disappears from the ecosystem. Example: Darwin’s Finches

21 Energy: Essential for Life The sun is the source of energy for all life Plants transfer the sun’s energy into the building blocks of living tissue Carbohydrates Fats Proteins through a process called Photosynthesis.

22 Energy Flow in the Biosphere Energy can’t be recycled = 1 way flow Flows through primary producers to final consumers

23 Energy Flow in the Biosphere Trophic Levels: Feeding level Each level higher = less energy Energy is lost through usage and heat back to the environment Omnivores, decomposers and scavengers also obtain energy from the energy pyramid

24 Energy Cycle Only 10% of the energy obtained gets passed on from one organism to another

25 Carrying Capacity & Limiting Factor Carrying Capacity: The limit of individuals in a population an ecosystem can support Limiting Factor: The factor that limits the carrying capacity Example: Carrying capacity of elk is 21,000 in Yellowstone National Park, two limiting factors are food and space

26 Opportunist & Specialist Species Opportunist Species: use the environment in a number of ways Example: Raccoons Specialist Species: Can feed on only one type of Food Example: Anteaters

27 Food Chain One path of energy from a Producer to a tertiary consumer Example: Plants-grasshopper-mouse-owl

28 Food Web A collection of many food chains that interact with one another

29 Food Chain or Food Web? 4792608939520617017&q=Lion+King+Circle+of+Life&total=623&start =0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 4792608939520617017&q=Lion+King+Circle+of+Life&total=623&start =0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0

30 Nutrient Cycles

31 Water Cycle

32 a.k.a. Hydrologic cycle This cycle describes how water flows from the atmosphere to earth and back again Precipitation- is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. Run-off is the water that flows from land back into a body of water

33 Water Cycle Cont’d Condensation-is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water Condensation forms clouds and fog Produces rain (precipitation)

34 Water Cycle Cont’d Transpiration- the release of water vapor from plants and animals Evaporation-is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor Evapotranspiration= evaporation + transpiration Warner Brothers Anamaniacs

35 Nitrogen Cycle

36 Nitrogen (N) is an element that is required to make proteins 79% of the air is Nitrogen gas, but most organisms can’t use it in this form Plants must get (N) in a “fixed” form : NO3 -, NH3, (NH2)2CO Animals must get (N) from plants

37 4 Process of the Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen-fixation-taking the (N) from the atmosphere to make it usable Decay-breaking down organic matter into ammonium (NH4NO3) Nitrification-Bacteria breaks down the ammonium to nitrates Denitrification-the process of changing nitrates to the atmosphere

38 Phosphorus Cycle

39 Phosphorus (P) can only be found in water, soil, and rock sediments It does not exist in the atmosphere as gas It is the slowest cycle This is often the limiting factor: b/c there are so little amounts in soil (Fertilizer)

40 Phosphorus Animals can only attain (P) by consuming plants or herbivores Only released by weathering of rocks Your body needs this for ATP (form of energy) Your body also needs this for its DNA

41 Carbon Cycle

42 Carbon is needed to build our living tissue It is the most abundant nutrient It exists in the non-living environment as: CO2 gas Carbonate rocks Deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas Dead matter from once living things in the soil

43 Carbon Cont’d Producers transfer Carbon from the atmosphere from CO2 to organic matter Living organisms eat the producers and pass the Carbon from one to the next Carbon returns as: CO2 gas through respiration Burning organic matter (plants/fuel) Decay of organic matter, methane

44 Carbon Cont’d More burning of fossil fuels adds Carbon into the air Pollution from oil Burning vegetation grazing or deforestation Contributes to the “Greenhouse Effect” CO2 in the atmosphere prevents heat from escaping back into space, which makes earth warmer! &q=greenhouse+effect&total=411&start=0&num=10&so=0&type =search&plindex=7 &q=greenhouse+effect&total=411&start=0&num=10&so=0&type =search&plindex=7

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