Presentation on theme: "1. According to Fitts and Posner, performers pass through three stages of learning when developing movement skills. i) Name and use a practical example."— Presentation transcript:
1 1. According to Fitts and Posner, performers pass through three stages of learning when developing movement skills. i) Name and use a practical example to explain the characteristics of each stage of learning. (6)Practical example - dribblingCognitive – first stage of learning where the player makes mistakes.Player tries out different ways of dribbling to find the correct method/player uses trial and errorThe dribbling pattern maybe very jerky/lacking fluencyThe player had to watch the ball all the time/player uses conscious thought/thinks about the skillAssociative – Practicing dribbling is important at this stageThe dribbling action is smootherThe player knows when a mistake has been made/kinaesthetic feedback can be usedThe player has to think less about the sub routinesof dribbling/motor programmes formedAutonomous – the player does not need to think about the subroutines as the movement can be performed automatically/movement is fluent/habitual/efficientThe player can focus on the strategies/tacticsIf the situation changes e.g. another player comes close, the player need to refer back to the previous stage.
2 Classwork Date Lesson 5 - Learning objective Types of guidance and their impact upon effective performance and participation.
3 Visual guidanceThis is when the teacher shows the learner information.Guidance is in the form of demonstrations, which are important as vision is usually the dominant sense and we learn through imitation.Visual aids, such as video, wall charts pictures, diagrams and models, can also be used.Demonstrations should be accurate and focus the learner's attention on the important aspects.
4 Practical exampleThe teacher shows the learner a demonstration of the overhead clear in badminton.
5 Verbal GuidanceThis is when the teacher tells the learner information.Often used in conjunction with visual guidance to direct the leaner to the important cues.Should be clear and concise.Can be used for tactics and strategies.
6 Practical exampleThe teacher tells the leaner the coaching points of the overhead clear.
7 Manual GuidanceThis involves the teacher holding and physically manipulating the learner's body through the correct pattern of movement.
8 Practical exampleThe teacher puts the learner's arm through the overhead clear so that they get the feel of the shot.
9 Mechanical guidanceThis involves the use of equipment to help support the leaner and shape the skill.
10 Practical exampleThe leaner uses a float in swimming.
11 TaskDraw a table to identify in which phase of learning each type of guidance is most appropriate, together with the advantages & disadvantages of each type.Type of guidanceMost appropriate useAdvantagesDisadvantages
12 HomeworkIn pairs you will need to explain the advantages and disadvantages of each type of practice and devise a practice to demonstrate this method..1. Masses practice2. Distributed practice3. Fixed practice4. Varied practice5. Mental practice/ mental rehearsal
13 VisualUsed in all stages of learning but is particularly useful in the cognitive stages.Helps learner to form a mental picture of the skill to be learned; vision is the dominant sense & we learn through imitation; demonstrations need to be accurate; can enable skilled performers to analyse their performances.Not good for complicated or long skills with too much information; static displays quickly lose their impact.
14 VerbalIs often used in conjunction with visual guidance; it is more effective with advanced performers in the autonomous phase.Good for the conveying of detailed & technical knowledge in the autonomous phase e.g. strategies & tactics; good to use with learners in early stages of leaning to direct them to the important cues in visual guidance.Amount of information has to be limited; learners have to understand the information and to remember it relate it to the skill; in complex skills it is difficult to be concise and the learners get bored.
15 ManualUseful in the early stages of learning to allow the learner to gain the kinaesthetic sense of the movement; is of limited use to the experienced performer.Allows the teacher to take the learner's body through the correct pattern of movement; gives confidence and ensure safety, particularly in skills with a danger element.This form of guidance needs to be removed as soon as possible so that the leaner does not become dependent on it; the feel of the movement the leaner experiences is different to the actual movement & it is important that the learner does not become accustomed to this adapted feel; manual guidance is difficult to give with a group.
16 MechanicalUseful in the early stages of learning to allow the learner to gain the kinaesthetic sense of the movement; is of limited use to the experienced performer.Allows the leaner to experience the spatial and timing aspects of the movement; gives confidence and ensure safety, particularly in skills with a danger element.This form of guidance needs to be removed as soon as possible so that the leaner does not become dependent on it; the feel of the movement the leaner experiences is different to the actual movement & it is important that the learner does not become accustomed to this adapted feel; mechanical guidance is designed to eliminate errors & therefore the leaner does not get to experience and correct mistakes..