Presentation on theme: "OCR AS Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 OCR AS Physical Education ACQUIRING MOVEMENT SKILLS
2 Information Processing during the performance of skills. Information processing focuses on how we deal with the vast amount of information that is available to us when we are performing skills. Information processing theories compare our systems to those of a computer in order to help us understand the various procedures that we apply to the information, which is important to performing the skills successfully. These procedures include the detection and interpretation of the information and the use of it to make decisions and put them in action.
3 Information Processing during the performance of skills. We also need to have an understanding of the way in which we make decisions and the factors that influence the speed at which we make them. Information processing theories also help us to understand the important part that our memories play as well as the role of feedback, both from ourselves and teachers/coaches, has in performing skills.
4 Models of Information Processing Inputting InformationProcessing InformationOutputting Information1. Sensory Information2. Central Mechanism (brain)3. Effector Mechanism (muscles)What is information processing? The theories attempt to explain how we take in the vast amount of information from our surroundings, interpret it and make decisions about courses of action we should take. They compare us to computers, but also take into account the more personalised nature of our interpretation and decision-making processes. If we were to identify three key processes in the working of a computer they would be:
7 Stages in Information Processing Stimulus IdentificationResponse SelectionResponse Programming
8 Stimulus Identification We first have to decide if a stimulus has occurred and this is done by our sensory systems receiving information. Patterns of movement are also detected and interpreted, e.g. we would interpret the information to decide the direction and speed that a ball was travelling. It can be seen that this stage involves the perceptual processes.
9 Response SelectionThis stage acts on the information received from the stimulus identification stage and is concerned with deciding which movement to make, e.g. the ball is high and to my left so I must move to my left to receive it.
10 Response ProgrammingThis next stage receives the decision about which movement to make and is responsible for organising our motor systems (nerves and muscles) to carry out the appropriate movement.
11 Welford’s Model Welford’s model identifies the following components: DisplaySensory informationSense organsPerceptual mechanismEffector MechanismResponseFeedback
13 Whiting’s ModelWhiting emphasised that we should realise that, although we show these models as static diagrams, not only is our environment constantly changing but the components of the models, whilst retaining the same basic structure are constantly changing and becoming more sophisticated. The models therefore should be seen as dynamic. Whiting’s model identified the following components:DisplayReceptor systemsPerceptual mechanismTranslatory mechanismOutput Feedback.
15 Key TermsDisplay: the surroundings or the environment that the performer is in. A netball player it would include the ball, teammates, opponents, spectators, umpires, coach. This information will stimulate the sensory nerves.Sensory information: we use the senses of vision, hearing and proprioception to gather information in order that we are aware of what is happening around us. Touch allows us to feel pressure and pain so we know how hard we have kicked a ball.Kinaesthesis: gives us information relating to the contractions of muscles, joints and tendons. When you have mastered a skill you are able to ‘feel’ how it is to perform using kinaesthetic info. E.g. a golfer uses this sense to know if their swing is right.Equilibrium: tells you whether you are balanced, turning or falling. It also enables you to know your body position. Information is generated from the inner ear. Gymnasts use this in their moves.Perception: The interpretation of information. Here we make sense of the stimuli we receive. There are three elements: detection, comparison (to similar stimuli we have stored in our memory) and recognition.Memory: this plays an important role in the perceptual and decision making processes. It consists of three parts: short term sensory stores, short term memory and long term memory.Decision Making: once the information has been interpreted the correct response has to be put into action. This will be in the form of a motor programme.Effector Mechanism: the motor programme is put into action by sending impulses via the nervous system to the appropriate muscles so that they can carry out the appropriate actions. Effector: The muscles which put the motor programme into actionFeedback: When the motor programme has been put into action by the effector mechanism the display changes and creates new information. The new information is known as feedback and can be internal as well as external. Feedback is used as a result if the movements we make and is used to compare our performance with what we intended to do.
16 FeedbackIntrinsic:Feedback from internal proprioceptors about the feel of the movement. Kinaesthesis is also involved. E.g. the feel of whether or not you have hit the ball in the middle of the bat in a cricket shot. It is important for experienced performers who may be able to use it during a movement in order to control it. Beginners should be made aware of this feedback in order that they pay attention to experiencing the movement’s feel.
17 FeedbackExtrinsic:Feedback from external sources such as the teacher/coach or team mates. It is received by the visual and auditory systems and is used to augment intrinsic feedback. It is important for beginners, as they are limited in their use of intrinsic feedback.
18 FeedbackA football player has the ball for a free kick. He sees where all his teammates and opponents are and decides where to play the ball. He decides where to kick the ball, how hard to kick it and how high etc. The ball goes over all his teammates and out of play. This feedback tells him that next time he doesn’t need to kick it so hard or so high.
19 Exam Question.Outline Whiting’s model of information processing and explain how the perceptual mechanism can affect the performance of physical activities. (6 marks, June 2010)