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Module 1 Information Processing Whiting & Welford

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1 Module 1 Information Processing Whiting & Welford
AS Level – Week 20 Theory Module 1 Information Processing Whiting & Welford

2 Information Processing
The effectiveness of your information processing system is a vital factor in your in your ability as an individual and can have a big impact on the level of your performance. Often it is not the performer who is the most skilful that succeeds, but the one that is most able to identify the relevant cues, ignore those that are irrelevant and, based on that information, select the appropriate action in the quickest time.

3 Theorists make the assumption that our brains function very much the same way as a computer.
Information processing in its simplistic form is -: INPUT >>> DECISION MAKING >>> OUTPUT >>> FEEDBACK Input - information is gathered from the environment. Decision-making - gathered information is used to formulate a motor programme. Output - motor programme is completed by the performer. Feedback - information is gathered during and after the performance.

4 However there are two common models used to illustrate information processing; Whiting (1969) and Wellford (1976) Whilst they differ slightly in their structure and terminology, their basic process is very similar, involving three stages. Stimulus identification – information is collected from the display via the sensory system. This involves the performer using their perceptual mechanism. Any information deemed irrelevant is filtered via selective attention to increase the speed of the decision making process. Example; a netball player will gather information regarding the speed and direction of the ball, the location of teammates and opponents plus personal position on court. Shouts from spectators and location of the umpire will be ignored as this will slow down the decision making process. Response identification – the relevant information is assessed and a decision made based on previous experience, which is stored in the memory. Example; the netball player will decide upon a particular type of pass to use.

5 Response programming – the motor programme is completed via the effector mechanism and the muscular system. Example; the netball player completes the pass to their teammate. Diagram Whiting’s Model Selective Attention – A process that filters irrelevant information gathered by the sensory system and prioritises the stimuli that can affect that particular situation. Motor Programme – Organises a series of subroutines into the correct sequence to perform a movement, adapting it to changes in the environment. Perceptual Mechanism – The interpretation and analysis of information gathered from the environment by the sensory system.

6 Translatory System – Uses the information gathered from the environment and makes the appropriate decision. Effector Mechanism – Transfers the decision that has been made to the muscular system via motor nerves.

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