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Presentation on theme: "FUNDAMENTALS OF READING INSTRUCTION Presented by: Ashley Hughes."— Presentation transcript:


2 Five Components of Reading Instruction  Research states that there are 5 essential components of Reading Instruction: (NCLD, 2010)  Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Reading Comprehension

3 Phonemic Awareness  Phonemic awareness is knowing that words are made of individual sounds and being aware of and able to manipulate these sounds, which are called phonemes. (For Example: /s/ in /sit/)  Children should: Rhyme (the fat cat Pat) Pick out syllables in spoken words (Su-san) Know the first and last sounds in a word (ran, can; sit, it) Separate the sounds in a word (/s/-/i/-/t/)  Teaching sounds along with the letters of the alphabet will help develop phonemic awareness,

4 Phonics  Phonics is the relationship between sounds and letters.  Children must understand that letters are representations of sounds before they can learn to read. (The relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.)  A (Apple) B (Ball) C (Cat)  Phonics instruction helps teach children letter-sound correspondences.

5 Fluency  Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly.  Fluent readers do not have to concentrate on recognizing the words, they can focus their attention on what the text means.  Fluency builds a bridge between word recognition and comprehension  Increase Fluency Increase Comprehension

6 Vocabulary  Vocabulary is knowing words and knowing what they mean.  There are four types of vocabulary: listening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and writing vocabulary.  It is easier for beginning readers to read words that are already part of their oral vocabularies.

7 Vocabulary continued… Students should engage in activities, such as,  Word play (For example: "When you use glue in class, it paste to be careful.“ (PUN))  Do research into the history of a word  Search for examples of a word in their everyday lives (For example: read signs or cereal boxes)

8 Comprehension  Reading comprehension is being able to understand, remember, and communicate what has been read.  Reading to learn subject matter does not occur automatically once students have learned to read  Strategies for taking the meaning from text need to be taught.  Students need to be taught how to make sense out of text and how to construct meaning.

9 References  Article: Reading Instruction Checklist  National Center for Learning Disabilities

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