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Getting Up to Speed with The Six Minute Solution

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1 Getting Up to Speed with The Six Minute Solution
A research-based reading fluency program Available in three levels : Primary K-2 Intermediate 3-6 Secondary 7-9

2 The Six Minute Solution
Based on the repeated reading and peer assisted learning research. Takes only 6 minutes of the instructional period once students are trained in the procedure. Partners read a passage or fluency building sheet to each other Get peer feedback Record timings Both Methodologies: “Repeated Reading” and Peer Assisted Learning have been research-validated – Cite Fluency Chapter from “The Voices of Evidence in Reading Research ( McCardle & Chhabra, 2004)

Primary Level—for kindergarten through second grade students. Intervention students- 3rd Includes assessment tools, reproducible charts, high-frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for common phonic elements necessary for teaching young children to read as well as 75 passages ( 25 at at each grade level first through third grade) There are three levels of Six Minute Solution First level: Primary – Tier I Kids K-2; Tier II Kids K-3

Intermediate Level—for third through sixth grade students. Intervention students in grades 5-8 Includes assessment tools,reproducible charts, high frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for prefixes, suffixes and vowel combinations as well as 150 passages(25 at each grade level first through sixth) Second level: Intermediate – Tier I Kids 3-6; Tier II Kids 5-8

Secondary Level—for sixth through ninth grade students. Intervention students in grades 6-12 Includes assessment tools,reproducible charts, high frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for prefixes, suffixes and vowel combinations as well as 150 passages(25 at each grade level fourth through ninth) Third level: Primary – Tier I Kids 6-9; Tier II Kids 6-12

6 What is reading fluency?

7 Fluency is the ability to read text
accurately, quickly, and with expression.

8 Why should we focus on helping our students increase their reading fluency?

9 Five Key Instructional Components of Reading
Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Strategies National Reading Panel (2000)

10 Fluency is directly related to
reading comprehension. independent reading. work completion.

11 Oral Reading Fluency Correlates Highly with Reading Comprehension
Measure Validity Coefficients Oral Recall / Retell Cloze Question Answering Oral Reading Fluency .70 .72 This charts compares Oral Reading Fluency “side-by-side” with other ways to measure comprehension. Oral Reading Fluency ranks the highest .82 .91 Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins. SSR. 2001

12 recognize words and comprehend at the same time.
Fluent readers… recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Fluency and Comprehension Samuels, Schermer & Reinking, 1992

13 generally find reading to be a pleasurable activity
Fluent readers… generally find reading to be a pleasurable activity and read more as a result. Fluency and Independent Reading Stanovich, 1986

14 Fluent readers will be better able to complete both class assignments and homework.
This is significant considering the amount of reading assigned to middle and high school students.

15 Six Minute Solution Instructional Format
Teacher sets timer & says, “Begin” Partner 1 reads & Partner 2 marks 7 errors & stopping point on his/her copy of passage. 1 minute Teacher announces it is time for fluency practice. Partners record date on their respective record sheets Partner 1 reads first Partner 2 marks errors & stopping point with marking pen 2 copies of the same level of passages in plastic sheets 1 marking pen & cloth in a plastic bag 2 student record sheets Timer for the teacher Procedures Materials Time Take folks through a preliminary “walk through” of the Six Minute Solution Routine.

16 Students return their passages, record sheets & bags with the marking pen & sponge to their portfolio. 1 minute Partner 1 tells Partner 2 how many words he/she read, how many errors were made & does error correction procedure. Partner 2 records the numbers on his/her record sheet Partner 1 wipes off his/her passage & returns the marking pen & cloth to the plastic bag. Teacher again sets timer & says, “Begin.” Partner 2 reads the same passage to Partner 1. Partner 1 records errors & stopping point on his/her copy of passage. Partner 2 tells Partner 1 how many words he/she read, how many errors were made & does error correction procedure Partner 1 records the numbers on his/her record sheet Partner 2 wipes off his/her passage & gives marking pen to Partner 1.

17 Weekly Sample Schedule
Monday Partnerships preview new passage for accuracy by whisper reading and underlining unknown words. Teacher monitors and identifies any words unknown to either partner. Option 1 : Use allotted six minutes for partners to preview passages. No timings. Option 2 : Allow for extra time on Mondays ( minutes). Partners preview passages for accuracy and practice during allotted six minutes. Tuesday - Friday- Fluency Practice Friday -Partners turn in passages and select new ones Option : Extend time to incorporate comprehension strategies or summary writing using the practiced passage before turning it in and selecting a new one. Here is what a typical week of Six Minute Solution can look like….

18 Six Simple Steps for the Six Minute Solution Partner Fluency Model
Procedure Estimated Time Step 1 - Assess Students hours Step 2- Rank Students /Select Partnerships 1 hour Step 3- Introduce Fluency Concept minutes Step 4- Establish Partnership Behavior 10 Minutes Step 5- Train Students in Partner Procedures 20 to 30 minutes Step 6- Train Students in Material Management 10 to 15 minutes Once the six steps are completed, the daily fluency procedure takes only 6 minutes a day ! It will take time to establish the routines for Six Minute Solution. Here are some estimated times for teaching the routines to your classroom. Scripts for routine instruction are in your manual.

19 Let’s examine how to introduce and implement The Six-Minute Solution program materials.

20 Step One- Assess Students
Materials Required: Two copies of a grade level passage - one for the student to read from and another for the teacher to use to record total words read and errors. Note: Every student must read the same passage for the purpose of assessment. The teacher could have a laminated copy on which to record errors and stopping point with a water based marking pen. The teacher would then erase between students. Or the teacher could run multiple copies of the same passage and use a separate one to record errors and stopping point for each student. Data sheet for the teacher to record correct words per minute and timer Show example folders

21 Step One- Assess Students
Procedures : Give a one-minute fluency timing on a grade level passage to determine how many correct words per minute each student reads. Give a reading test to determine independent and/or instructional level of each student. Example : San Diego Quick Test of Sight Word Recognition, Gates McGinities Test of Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension, McLeod Test of Reading Comprehension, Scholastic Reading Inventory Collect Data: You need three main types of Data Assessments you might already have: Oral Reading Fluency level – using a grade-level text (DIBELS, AIMS Web) Independent and/or instructional reading level (DRA or SRI) Phonics/Spelling Screening tool. (CORE Phonics Survey, Spellography spelling Inventory, Language Spelling test, WADE decodable-words spelling test) If you don’t have these assessments, you can use the tests found in the six minute solution book for each of these areas (SEE Manual)

22 Oral Reading Fluency Errors
Mispronunciations/Dropped endings Substitutions Hesitations/No attempt Omissions Transpositions (out of sequence) Repeated errors count each time How errors are counted in this program

23 DO NOT COUNT as Errors Errors made, then self-corrected
Repeated words read correctly Punctuation errors Dialect or speech problems Insertions

24 SCORING THE RESULTS Words read correctly per minute (FLUENCY):
Time students for one minute on their grade level placement test. Count the number of total words read. Subtract errors to obtain correct words read per minute (CWPM) Total Words Read Errors = Correct Words Per Minute

25 Obtain an Instructional Reading Level Score
San Diego Quick Test of Sight Word Recognition Included in the Six Minute Solution ONLY USE IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A INDEPENDENT OR INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVEL FOR A STUDENT: The San Diego Quick is a test of sight word recognition. Students’ ability to read graded word lists is a strong indicator of their instructional reading level. Why? Proficient readers read as well out of context as they do in context. Another possibility is to give all student the San Diego Quick ( found in the Six Minute Solution) manual. IT was designed years ago at San Diego State University- hence its name. I like it because it is quick, free and gives a pretty accurate indication of the independent, instructional and independent level of the students. It consists of lists that students read. Make an estimate of the student’s reading level and start at a list one or two levels below the estimate. I keep going down until I find a list where there is only 1 error. So basically, I am asking students to go up a list to read or go down a list to read. It is as easy as error is independent level. At their independent level, students can read recreational materials. 2 errors is instructional level . Instructional level is where, with teacher output, they could be successful. 3 errors signals their frustration level. Even with teacher input, students will not be successful reading at their frustration level. As easy as it is, though, students do not always fall neatly into categories. Sometimes they go from independent straight to frustration.

26 Individually administered test.
Estimate instructional level- start two levels below-

27 Easy as 1-2-3 Students sometimes skip from independent to frustration- place them on independent level in those cases.

28 Teacher recording form. Make one copy for each student
Teacher recording form. Make one copy for each student. Can use 3 times a year- use different color pen.

29 Word lists are not graded on the student list
Prepimer through Grade 3 on top Grade 4-7 on bottom

30 Step Two- Rank Students and Select Partnerships
Materials Required: Data for each student - a fluency score and an independent/instructional reading level score Ranking sheet or computer spreadsheet programs

31 Step Two- Rank Students and Select Partnership
Procedures : Using a class roster, list students in order of fluency score first and then by reading level. Assign partners based on ranking. For example, if using a spread sheet program, after sorting first for fluency and then for reading level, students ranked as #1 and # 2 could be partners, students ranked as #3 and #4 would be partners and so on. Partners must be closely matched. Once partnerships are selected, label each partner in the partnership #1 and the other #2. Partner 1 should be the stronger of the two partners. As an example, two sixth grade students each with an instructional level of 4th grade are partners. Partner 1 has a fluency rate of 72 correct words per minute and partner 2 has a fluency rate of 68 correct words per minute. Note: Students must be assigned practice passages timings at their independent or instructional grade level.

32 Mark your worksheet like this.
For example, Gail Adams and Franco Nunez can be fluency partners because both have an instructional reading level of 3 and are within 4 CWPM of each other. Franco will be Student A in the first partnership because he reads with fewer errors! Mark your worksheet like this. Try the next one. First partnership is easy- students have same reading level and an oral fluencyr ate of within 4 cwpm of each other. Franco is Partner A since he has the higher CWPM. ***MODEL WITH SPREADSHEET!!!!!

33 Step Three- Introduce Fluency Concept/Repeated Reading
Materials Required: Optional - Overheads of introductory material- What is Fluency? Why is it Important? Copy of National Reading Panel Copy of a selected demonstration passage and a graph for each student in the classroom. Note: readability of the passage should match the readability of the lowest reader in the class. Overhead transparency of the same passage, overhead transparency of the graph, a marker and a timer for the teacher. MODEL A LESSON ON “WHAT IN MEANS TO BE FLUENT”



36 Step Three- Introduce Fluency Concept/Repeated Reading
Procedures : Teacher demonstrates whisper reading the sample passage for one minute, tracking as he/she reads, underlining unknown words and making a mark after the last word read as the timer sounds. Teacher then demonstrates how to use the line count to figure out correct number of words read. Teacher demonstrates how to use the graph. Students whisper read passage for one minute, figure out the correct number of words read and graph. Procedure is repeated for a second minute Students compare number of cwpm on each timing. Teacher leads class discussion on the benefits of repeated reading.

37 Practice Passage 310- Use to Introduce Fluency
Reading is important. It is a useful skill. People who can read have an 14 easier time in life. They can read traffic signs, menus, and maps. They can 28 pass a test to get a driver’s license. They can apply for a job. Reading is also 45 powerful. People who can read can learn about all kinds of things. 57 However, not everyone can read. Some experts study reading. They 67 say that one out of every six people in the world can’t read. There are many 83 reasons for this problem. Some countries do not let girls go to school. In 97 those countries, many women cannot read. Other people live in very poor 109 countries. No one can afford to learn to read in these countries. They are 123 busy trying to find food to eat. Many countries are at war. Their people are 138 fighting to stay alive. They do not have time to learn to read. 151 In the U.S., there are many people who do not speak English. They 164 came from other countries. It is hard to come to a new country. It takes time 180 to learn the language well enough to read it. Other people have learning 193 problems. It is harder for them to learn to read. 203 The good news is that everyone can learn how to read. There are 216 special programs to teach people to read. One of the best ways to become 230 better at reading is to read every day. Countries want to show their citizens 244 how important it is to learn to read. Every September 8, we celebrate 257 International Literacy Day. Literacy is a word that means being able to read, 270 write, and speak. 273 The Right to Read Practice Passage 310- Use to Introduce Fluency Demo- Be my students. We’ve talked about what fluency is and why it is important. Now, we are going to experience the power of repeated reading first hand. Accuracy check first- but remember to choose a sample passage that matched the readability of the lowest reader in the room; Let’s pretend that you are all my 7th grade class, unfortunately a few of you read at the 3rd grade level so I have selected a passage with a 3rd grade readability level for us to practice. Total Words Read _______  Errors _______ = CWPM_______


39 Introduce Fluency with a Read Aloud
A wolf learns to read in order to impress “educated” barnyard animals. He first reads haltingly, “ Run-Wolf-Run.” Then he tries to read too fast: “Onceuponatimetherewerethreelittlelpigs.” Finally with practice, he learns to read with confidence and passion. WOLF is an entertaining read aloud for students of all ages. Helps to get across the idea of “just right” reading- not too slow and not too fast.

40 Step Four- Establish Partner Behavior
Materials Required: Procedures : Teacher discusses cooperative and respectful partnerships. For example, the teacher may say to the class, “ We are going to be working in partnerships to build reading fluency. Partners have been selected based o n assessment data. Your fluency partnership will be a working relationship for only 6 minutes of the class period. You do not have to be friends with your partner. You do not have to even talk to your partner outside of this classroom. However, you MUST work cooperatively and respectfully during the partner fluency time. “ Teacher states “No Arguing” rule and may give demonstration as to how arguing wastes fluency time.

41 Step Four- Establish Partner Behavior
Teacher selects a volunteer student partner to demonstrate correct partner behavior during read - “lean in and whisper read.” Teacher demonstrates giving polite feedback to the partner - “You read 85 words. I heard 3 errors. Your correct words read per minute is 82.” Teacher demonstrates gently correcting errors using tell and repeat method. Teacher points to error and states the correct word “This word is -----”. Then asks partner, “What word?” Partner repeats word correctly.

42 Partner Behavior The teacher selects a volunteer student to demonstrate correct partner behavior-- “lean in and whisper read.” Ask for a volunteer participant to be a partner for this demo. Give examples and non examples 55

43 Partner Behavior The teacher demonstrates giving polite feedback to a partner after the one-minute reading is completed. “You read 85 words. I heard 3 errors. Your correct words read per minute is 82.” Script : You read ______. I heard _____errors. Your total is ________ I teach students to say “ I heard” rather than “ You made” because it sounds so much kinder.. 55

44 Error Correction Procedure- “ Point, Say, Ask”
The teacher demonstrates correcting errors using the tell and repeat method which is used after the one-minute reading is completed. The teacher points to an error and says the correct word “This word is _______.” The teacher then asks his/her partner, “What word?” Partner repeats word correctly. The error correction procedure requires that the partner tell the correct word( rather than the incorrect word) and have the partner repeat. Two reasons for this : Want to reinforce correct word Want to teach students to avoid errors. Most middle school students do not want to be corrected so knowing that they will have to “ go through” an error correction exercise will help them to read more carefully. Give Response cost example. 55

45 Remember : No Arguing! . 55

46 One way to hold partners accountable is to assign grades for working as a good partnership.

47 Step Five- Train Students in Partner Procedures
Materials Required: Copy of training passage for each student enclosed in a plastic sleeve A marking pen and an erasing cloth for each partnership Recording sheet or graph for each student

48 Step Five- Train Students in Partner Procedures
Teacher sets timer for one minute and instructs all partner 1s to read and all partner 2s to follow along and underline errors. After the timer sounds, teacher instructs all partner 2s to give feedback to all partner 1s- how many total words read, how many errors made and how many correct words per minute. Teacher instructs all partner 2s to give error correction feedback. Teacher instructs all partner 1s to graph or record their score. Teacher instructs students to change roles and get ready for the second timing. Students repeat procedure for a second minute. Procedure is repeated. Students compare number of cwpm on each timing. Note: Teacher should walk around the room and monitor carefully at all times.

49 Step 5- Partner Practice
Volleyball : Up and Over Now let’s get into partnerships and have you practice the Six Minute format. Before we start however, let me first give a pre-correction. Pre-corrections are very effective in lots of situations………….basically it is determining what errors may be made and correcting for them ahead of time. Example- 1st grade teacher reminds students to walk down the hall quietly and keep hands to self. 8th grade teachers does the same. In this case, the partner fluency procedure is going to be distracting to you because you will all be reading the same passage. That is not the case in the classroom, however, when each partnership will be reading a different passage. 55

50 Volleyball: Up and Over Practice Passage 519
12 24 37 49 62 77 91 103 111 127 143 159 174 189 203 218 234 250 264 279 284 A man named William Morgan invented the game of volleyball in 1895. Morgan was a physical education teacher in a Massachusetts YMCA. He was interested in a game that would require less effort than basketball. He also wanted a game in which opponents did not come into physical contact. Morgan designed a team game that consisted of the tapping of a ball back and forth across a net. Morgan’s game is one in which teams are on opposite sides of the net. In volleyball, the players do not move around too much. Once an indoor game, volleyball later became popular as an outside game as well. It is played worldwide today. Volleyball is played on a field or court that is divided by a net. There are six players on each team. Three of the players play in the front, close to the net, and three play in the back. The volleyball is a rubber ball covered in leather. To begin the game, the ball is served by the player who stands at the right back of the volleyball court. The ball must go over the net without first touching the ground, another player or the net. After the serve, the ball is tapped back and forth across the net by each team until one team is unable to return a ball. The ball must be tapped or batted by hand and may not be lifted or pushed. If the serving team fails to serve fairly or fails to return a serve successfully, it loses the serve. If the defending team fails to return a serve, then the serving team scores a point. The game is won when one team scores fifteen points. Practice through the entire Six Minute Routine: Minute #1: Get materials Ready – Partner 1 gets ready to read, partner 2 gets ready to mark errors Minute #2: Partner 1 reads and Partner 2 Marks errors Minute #3: Partner 2 gives feedback, “You read ______. I heard _____errors. Your total is _______”. THEN, get ready for #2 to read Minute #4: Partner 2 reads and Partner 1 marks errors Minute #5: Partner 1 gives feedback, “You read ______. I heard _____errors. Your total is _______”. Minute #6: Partners put their materials away. Total Words Read _______  Errors _______ = CWPM_______ 284 Words 32c

51 Step Six- Train Students in Material Management
Materials Required: Portfolio for each partnership. Label each portfolio with the names of partner 1 and partner 2 Each portfolio should contain 2 copies of the same passage enclosed in a plastic sleeve, a graph for each student, a pen and erasing cloth Passages color coded or numbered for readability in a central file accessible to students. Timer for the teacher

52 Step Six- Train Students in Material Management
Procedures : Teacher shows students where portfolios and passages are kept. Teacher demonstrates taking and returning portfolios in an orderly fashion. Teacher demonstrates procedure for choosing new passages on Friday - taking passages out of enclosed plastic sleeves, having one partner return those passages to the designated file and selecting two copies of a different passage within the same readability level.

53 What If…….My Setting Doesn’t Lend Itself to Partner Practice?
Use one of the following individual fluency practice model Use a small group model

54 Adaptations for Individualized Repeated Reading Practice
Option 1 : All students read passages at their own instructional level. Each student follows the same step every day. Monday - Students select a new passage, preview it independently while underlining difficult words. Teacher meets with each student individually. Teacher reads entire passage with student for accuracy, modeling fluent reading (untimed). Teacher then sets the timer for one minute and listens to the student read the passage to obtain an initial fluency score. Student records initial correct words per minute on graph. Time : Approximately 3- 4 minutes per student. Tues. Wed. Thurs. - Teacher meets with each student individually for a one minute timing. After receiving feedback from teacher, students mark their graph. While waiting for their turn with the teacher, students practice by whisper reading their own passage. Time : Approximately 2 minutes per student. Friday - Teacher meets with each student individually for a one minute FINAL timing on the weekly passage. Student records final CWPM. Students may then compare their initial with their final score. Teacher may want to have each student write a short summary of their passage.

55 Adaptations for Individualized Repeated Reading Practice
Option 2 : Students read passages at their own instructional level and proceed through the steps at their own rate. Step 1 - Select passage. Student chooses a new passage and previews it independently while underlining difficult words. Step 2 - Accuracy Check. Teacher then reads entire passage with student for accuracy, modeling fluent reading (untimed). Step 3- Obtain initial fluency score. Student reads passage to teacher while being timed for one minute. Teacher tells student how many correct words were read and assists students in correcting any errors. Student then records initial cwpm on graph. Step 4- Teacher and student conference to determine the student’s target goal. Consider the readability and corresponding desirable fluency rate as well as the student’ s reading skills and motivation. The target goal should be attainable and as a general rule between 20 and 40 words above the initial goal. Step 5 - Student meets with teacher every day and reads the passage for one minute. After receiving feedback from the teacher, student records correct words per minute on the graph. Step 6- Student reaches target goal with 3 or fewer errors. The only difference between Option 1 and Option 2 is that in Option 2 the student works on the story until they reach their goal (usually between 20 to 40 words above their first reading). This could be more or less than 5 days.

56 Adaptations for Repeated Reading in a Small Group Setting
Repeated reading practice can also be implemented in a small group setting such as within a Literature Circle or Guided Reading Group using the same passage at the same instructional level. Unpracticed Timing Time the students for one minute. Students should whisper read. Ask students to underline difficult words and circle the last word read. Guide students in determining the correct number of words read and ask them to record it at the bottom of the page. Accuracy Building- Practice Chorally read material with students Model fluent reading.

57 Adaptations for Repeated Reading in a Small Group Setting
Fluency Building- Practice Ask students to whisper read for one minute. Students should try to get beyond their cold timing. Final Timing Ask students to write their name at the top of the page and to erase all markings. Have students exchange papers with partners. Have one partner read while the other follows along, underlines any word errors and circles the last word read. Repeat with roles reversed. Ask partners to determine the correct number of words read and record at top of page. Have partners return papers. Students should then graph their own timings.

58 How can we incorporate writing into this program?
There is an optional paragraph writing component in the Six Minute Solution. Many students who are able to write stories have a difficult time with academic writing- writing a persuasive paragraph, factual paragraph or summary paragraph. Summarization is an important skill to have and also a component of reading comprehension. We focused on having students write a summary paragraph because of the length of the passages and also because, we found that students need practice writing coherent paragraphs because only when they can write a coherent paragraph, can then they write a multiple paragraph essay. We found that it was very beneficial to teach students a pattern for writing a paragraph. A simple pattern that they could use again and again and again. Sometimes teachers say to me that if you teach them a pattern or a formula, you are going to stifle their creativity. That is not consistent with the research, however. It appears that giving students a pattern can be highly useful. It is just like a beginning cook following a recipe until he becomes proficient enough to cook without a recipe. Work on edible before you spice it up. Sometimes kids have so much spice in terms of personal antedotes and dialogue that they are missing the basic structure.

59 Summary Writing Frame This passage was about __________
___________________. First, I learned ___________________. Next, I learned ___________________. Finally, I learned ______________________.

60 Summary Writing Frame Topic Sentence ( name the who or the what and tell the most important thing about the who or the what). One important fact is __________________. Another important fact is ____________. A final important fact is __________________________.

61 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 1: Is the noise level distracting when so many students are reading aloud at the same time? Answer: Although teachers are often initially concerned about noise level, they usually find that if students are well trained in partner behavior – “lean in and whisper read”- it is not an issue. Partnerships are usually reading different passages so there is little if none “echo reading” which reduces the distraction. Most students are not at all bothered by the noise as they have been raised in a multi-sensory world. If the noise is distracting to a sensitive student, however, that partnership could read in the corner of the room or outside the door.

62 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 2:What happens when one partner is absent? Answer: For the occasional absence, there are several options: #1 The teacher or an instructional aide could substitute for the absent partner. If two different partnerships have an absent partner, the teacher can listen to one student read for one minute and then go to the other partnership and listen to that student read for the second minute. The solo partners would whisper read to themselves during the second timing. #2 Temporary partners could be assigned just for the day based on attendance. For example, if two partnerships were reading passages at the same readability level and each had an absent partner for the day, then a temporary partnership could be formed. # 3 –Students from a neighboring classroom could be assigned to substitute for an absent partner.

63 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 3 What do you do in the case of a permanent odd number of students- i.e. 27 assigned to one class or period? Answer:A: The teacher would assign some students to a triad rather than to a partnership. Three students whose fluency and reading levels closely match would be selected to form a triad. Partner 1, (the stronger reader), and Partner 2a (the next stronger reader) will read on the first day with partner 2b monitoring. On the second day, partners 2a and 2b will read and partner 1 will monitor. On the third day, partner 2b and partner 1 will reading and partner 2a will monitor. On the fourth day, partner 1 and partner 2a will read again and partner 2b will monitor. Note: If there are triads in a classroom, the teacher would need to implement partner fluency four times a week so that each member of the triad would an opportunity to read the passage three times during the week.

64 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 4:What happens if a student’s skills are so far below that of the rest of the class that he/she can not be matched with a partner? Answer:: In that case, the “outlying” student could be paired with a student tutor, a classroom volunteer or a paraprofessional. Another possibility would be to tape the material and have the student work independently listening to the tape rather than to a partner.

65 Frequently Asked Questions
Question# 5: : Should a student who reads less than 40 correct words per minute still practice passage reading? Answer:: Students reading less than 40 to 60 correct words per minute most likely need to increase their sight word vocabulary. These students could benefit from fluency practice at the single word level. These students could practice reading high frequency (automatic) words. The goal would be for the student to eventually read 60 correct high frequency words in a minute It is important to have students reading passages for fluency building as soon as possible to encourage skill generalization. It is possible that some students would practice both types of fluency - passage and single word- on an alternating basis.

66 Other Reading Skills Worthy of Fluency Building
Letter Sound Associations : /t/ /s/ /a/ Phonemic Segmentation : “Count the sounds in /run/” Word families : cat-sat-bat-that-flat Recently mastered words : “rapid read” Sight words : come, the, was - Sight phrases : “come with me”- Prefixes, suffixes and vowel combinations Content area vocabulary Passages in connected text :





71 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 6: What if neither partner knows some of the words in their passage? Answer: On the first day of the week, all student partnerships have new passages. Before students begin fluency practice, they preview the entire passage for accuracy while underlining unknown words. The teacher should monitor carefully, supplying any words unknown to either partner. It is important to make certain that students are accurate before they begin fluency building practice. Note: When students are properly placed at their instructional reading level, they should be 91-96% accurate. If their accuracy rate is below that level, they are misplaced and need to be reassigned passages at a lower readability level.

72 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 7: How often should the teacher review the partnership folders? Answer: At least once a month. Keep in mind, though, that during the daily six-minute fluency practice, the teacher should walk around the room and monitor very closely. Daily monitoring is essential as it enables the teacher to have a good idea of how each partnership is functioning.

73 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 8: How does the teacher know when to move a partnership up to the next readability level? Answer: Generally speaking, the students will work at the same readability level for at least six weeks. However, some students will need to remain on the same level for much longer. When the teacher notices that the partners are reaching the upper range of the fluency level for their level, it is time to conference with the partners and discuss moving to the next level. Remember that students must practice fluency building on material for which they are 91 to 96% accurate.On the other hand, they need to be moved to the next level just as quickly as they are ready in order to accelerate their reading gains.

74 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 9 : How often should partnerships be changed? Answer:It is recommended that students be assessed for fluency three times during a school year. Partnerships would be then be reassigned based on that fluency data. During the interval, some partnerships can remain the same while others need to be changed more frequently. As a general rule change partners if: 1. Partners are progressing at a very uneven rate. 2. Partners are not cooperating with each other after teacher intervention and conferencing.

75 Frequently Asked Questions
Question # 10 : What kind of results have been obtained using the Six Minute Solution model? Answer: There are three field tests cited in the Six Minute Solution. Field Test I-Data was collected on 52 sixth grade students attending a 24 day summer intervention program for students reading at least two years below grade level. The average fluency gain for these students was 36% with an average gain of 26% in comprehension. Field Test II- Data was collected on 92 middle school students receiving one hour of reading support four days a week in a mandatory reading class. 99% of the students demonstrated measurable growth in oral reading fluency. Field Test III- Six Minute Solution was implemented in two upper elementary ( 4th and 5th grade classrooms) over a three month period. 95% of the students demonstrated a significant gain in oral reading fluency.

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