Presentation on theme: "Getting Up to Speed with The Six Minute Solution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Getting Up to Speed with The Six Minute Solution A research-based reading fluency program by:Gail N. Adams and Sheron M. BrownAvailable in three levels :Primary K-2Intermediate 3-6Secondary 7-9
2 The Six Minute Solution Based on the repeated reading and peer assisted learning research.Takes only 6 minutes of the instructional period once students are trained in the procedure.Partners read a passage or fluency building sheet to each otherGet peer feedbackRecord timings.
3 THE SIX-MINUTE SOLUTION, PRIMARY LEVEL Primary Level—for kindergarten through second grade students.Intervention students- 3rdIncludes assessment tools, reproducible charts, high-frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for common phonic elements necessary for teaching young children to read as well as 95 passages ( 25 at at each grade level first through third grade and well as 20 decodable passages to reinforce phonetic elements..
7 THE SIX-MINUTE SOLUTION, INTERMEDIATE LEVEL Intermediate Level—for third through sixth grade students.Intervention students in grades 5-8Includes assessment tools,reproducible charts, high frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for prefixes, suffixes and vowel combinations as well as 150 passages(25 at each grade level first through sixth)
12 THE SIX-MINUTE SOLUTION, SECONDARY LEVEL Secondary Level—for sixth through ninth grade students.Intervention students in grades 6-12Includes assessment tools,reproducible charts, high frequency word lists, fluency building sheets for prefixes, suffixes and vowel combinations as well as 150 passages(25 at each grade level fourth through ninth).
20 recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Fluent readers….recognize words and comprehend at the same time.Fluency and ComprehensionSamuels, Schermer & Reinking, 1992
21 generally find reading to be a pleasurable activity Fluent readers…generally find reading to be a pleasurable activityand read more as a result.Fluency and Independent ReadingStanovich, 1986
22 Fluent readers will be better able to complete both class assignments and homework. This is significant considering the amount of reading assigned to middle and high school students.
23 Measuring Reading Fluency the number of words in text read correctly per minute (wcpm)or…letters, sounds, words.
24 Finding Students Who Need Fluency Intervention Assess Correct Words per MinuteCompare to Oral Reading Fluency Norms
25 Assess: Correct Words per Minute Use a grade level textTime student for one minuteMark all errorsProvide the word after 3-5 seconds of hesitationCount total number of words readSubtract errors to obtain correct words read per minute (cwpm)Total words read – errors = cwpm
26 Curriculum-Based Norms in Oral Reading Fluency *WCPM = Words Correct Per MinuteHasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G. (2005). Oral Reading Fluency: 90 Years of Measurement (Tech. Rep. No. 33). Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, College of Education, Behavioral Research and Teaching.
27 Who needs fluency instruction & practice? Most elementary school studentsStruggling readers at the higher gradesGood readers can also benefit from practice on challenging text.
28 How Can Fluency Be Increased? PracticePRACTICE !
30 Accuracy Independent 97-100% Instructional 96-91% # of words read correctly/total # of words readIndependent %(+ good/excellent comprehension)Instructional 96-91%(+ good/satisfactory comprehension)Frustration 90% & below(+ satisfactory/fair/poor comp).
31 Utilize Repeated Reading Activities The Report of the National Reading Panel found that the following techniques to be highly effective in developing reading fluency:Having students read and reread text three to five times or until a certain level of fluency is reached.Using audiotapes, tutors or peers for repeated reading practice.Giving feedback to guide the reader’s performance
32 Six Minute Solution Instructional Format Partner 1 ReadsTeacher sets timer & says, “Begin”Partner 1 reads until the timer sounds.Partner 2 marks Partner 1 reading errors and stopping point on his/her copy of the Practice Passage.1 minuteGet ReadyTeacher announces it is time for fluency practice.Student partners remove fluency materials from the partnership’s portfolio.Partners record date on their respective record sheetsTeacher monitors to ensure students are ready to begin their timingsTimer for the teacher1 portfolio for each set of student partners that contains :2 copies of the same level of grade level passages in plastic sleeves or laminated2 copies of the fluency record or fluency graph1 marking pen & cloth in a plastic bagProceduresMaterialsTime
33 1 minute Partner 2 Gives Feedback Students Put Away MaterialsOne partner returns the copies of the passages, recording sheets, dry-erase marker and erasing cloth in the zipper lock plastic bag to the partner portfolio.1 minutePartner 1 Gives FeedbackPartner 1 tells Partner 2 how many words he/she read, the number of errors he/she made, and does the error error correction procedure.Partner 2 records the numbers on his/her record sheetPartner 1 wipes off the markings on his/her passage & returns the marking pen & cloth to the plastic bag.Partner 2 ReadsTeacher again sets timer & says, “Begin.”Partner 2 reads the same passage to Partner 1. Partner 1 records errors & stopping point on his/her copy of passage.Partner 2 Gives FeedbackPartner 2 tells Partner 1 how many words he/she read the number of errors he/she made and does the error-correction procedure.,Partner 1 records the numbers on his/her record sheetPartner 2 wipes off the marking on his/her passage & gives marking pen to Partner 1.
34 Weekly Sample Schedule Monday -Partnerships preview new passage for accuracy by whisper reading and underlining unknown words. Teacher monitors and identifies any words unknown to either partner.Option 1 : Use allotted six minutes for partners to preview passages. No timings.Option 2 : Allow for extra time on Mondays ( minutes). Partners preview passages for accuracy and practice during allotted six minutes.Tuesday – Friday-Fluency PracticeFriday -Partners turn in passages and select new onesOption : Extend time to incorporate comprehension strategies or summary writing using the practiced passage before turning it in and selecting a new one.
35 Six Simple Steps for the Six Minute Solution Partner Fluency Model Procedure Estimated TimeStep 1 - Assess Students hoursStep 2- Rank Students /Select Partnerships 1 hourStep 3- Introduce Fluency Concept minutesStep 4- Establish Partnership Behavior 10 minutesStep 5- Train Students in Partner Procedures minutesStep 6- Train Students in Material Management minutesOnce the six steps are completed, the daily fluency procedure takes only 6 minutes a day !
36 Let’s examine how to introduce and implement The Six-Minute Solution program materials.
37 Step One- Assess Students Procedures : Administer two assessments1. Administer a one-minute fluency timing on a grade level passage to determine how many correct words per minute each student reads.2. Administer a reading assessment to determine independent and/or instructional reading level of each student..
38 Step One- Assess Students Materials Required for Oral Reading FluencyTwo copies of a grade level passage - one for the student to read from and another for the teacher to use to record total words read and errors. Note: Every student must read the same passage for the purpose of assessment.The teacher could have a laminated copy on which to record errors and stopping point with a water based marking pen. The teacher would then erase between students. Or the teacher could run multiple copies of the same passage and use a separate one to record errors and stopping point for each student.Data sheet for the teacher to record correct words per minute and timer
40 Procedures for Conducting a One Minute Fluency Assessment 1. Use 2 copies of the text- one for the student to read and one on which to record errors and stopping point.2. Explain the purpose of the timing to the student using age appropriate language.3. Indicate that you would like to hear the student real aloud, quickly and carefully.4. Tell the student the title of the passage.5. Set the timer for one minute and direct the student’s attention to the beginning of the passage.6. Tell the student to begin reading when he/she is ready and then you will start the timer. Don’t say “ ready, set, go”.
41 Procedures for Conducting a One Minute Fluency Assessment As the student reads, follow along and record errors .When timer sounds, put a mark after the last word the student read.Count each word beginning with the number to the left of the line on which the student stopped reading to determine the total number of words read. Subtract errors from total to determine correct words read in one minute.Guidelines for counting words :Abbreviations such as “Mr.” count as a word.A number written as a numeral ( 1984) counts as a word.Hyphenated words count as individual words- twelve-year-old would count as three words.
42 Oral Reading Fluency Errors Mispronunciations/Dropped endingsSubstitutionsHesitations/No attemptOmissionsTranspositions (out of sequence)Repeated errors count each time
43 DO NOT COUNT as Errors Errors made, then self-corrected Repeated words read correctlyPunctuation errorsDialect or speech problemsInsertions.
44 Step One- Assess Students Materials Required for Determining Instructional Reading levelSan Diego Quick Test of Sight Word Recognition included in the Six Minute Solution.San Diego Quick Record Form for each student. Or one copy that is laminated on which the teacher would record errors with a water based pen. The teacher would then erase between students and record their instructional reading level on a different sheet of paper.
49 Step Two- Rank Students and Select Partnerships Materials Required:Data for each student - a fluency score and an independent/instructional reading level scoreRanking sheet or computer spreadsheet programs
50 Step Two- Rank Students and Select PartnershipsProcedures :Using a class roster, list students in order of fluency score first and then by reading level.Assign partners based on ranking. For example, if using a spread sheet program, after sorting first for fluency and then for reading level, students ranked as #1 and # 2 could be partners, students ranked as #3 and #4 would be partners and so on. Partners must be closely matched.Once partnerships are selected, label each partner in the partnership #1 and the other #2. Partner 1 should be the stronger of the two partners. As an example, two sixth grade students each with an instructional level of 4th grade are partners. Partner 1 has a fluency rate of 72 correct words per minute and partner 2 has a fluency rate of 68 correct words per minute. Note: Students must be assigned practice passages timings at their independent or instructional grade level.
51 For example, Gail Adams and Franco Nunez can be fluency partners because both have an instructional reading level of 3 and are within 4 CWPM of each other.Franco will be Student A in the first partnership because he reads with fewer errors!Mark your worksheet like this.Try the next one.
52 Step Three- Introduce Fluency Concept/Repeated Reading Materials Required:Optional - Overheads of introductory material- What is Fluency? Why is it Important? Copy of National Reading Panel, Read Aloud bookCopy of a selected demonstration passage and a graph for each student in the classroom. Note: readability of the passage should match the readability of the lowest reader in the class.Overhead transparency of the same passage, overhead transparency of the graph, a marker and a timer for the teacher.
53 Introduce Fluency with a Read Aloud A wolf learns to read in order to impress “educated” barnyard animals.He first reads haltingly, “ Run-Wolf-Run.”Then he tries to read too fast: “Onceuponatimetherewerethreelittlelpigs.”Finally with practice, he learns to read with confidence and passion.
54 Model Fluent Reading Demonstrate both fluency and non fluent reading. Ask students to discern between fluent and non fluent reading.
55 Practice Passage 310- Use to Introduce Fluency Reading is important. It is a useful skill. People who can read have an14easier time in life. They can read traffic signs, menus, and maps. They can28pass a test to get a driver’s license. They can apply for a job. Reading is also45powerful. People who can read can learn about all kinds of things.57However, not everyone can read. Some experts study reading. They67say that one out of every six people in the world can’t read. There are many83reasons for this problem. Some countries do not let girls go to school. In97those countries, many women cannot read. Other people live in very poor109countries. No one can afford to learn to read in these countries. They are123busy trying to find food to eat. Many countries are at war. Their people are138fighting to stay alive. They do not have time to learn to read.151In the U.S., there are many people who do not speak English. They164came from other countries. It is hard to come to a new country. It takes time180to learn the language well enough to read it. Other people have learning193problems. It is harder for them to learn to read.203The good news is that everyone can learn how to read. There are216special programs to teach people to read. One of the best ways to become230better at reading is to read every day. Countries want to show their citizens244how important it is to learn to read. Every September 8, we celebrate257International Literacy Day. Literacy is a word that means being able to read,270write, and speak.273The Right to ReadPractice Passage 310- Use to Introduce FluencyTotal Words Read _______ Errors _______= CWPM_______
56 Step Three- Introduce Fluency Concept/Repeated Reading Procedures :Teacher demonstrates whisper reading the sample passage for one minute, tracking as he/she reads, underlining unknown words and making a mark after the last word read as the timer sounds. Teacher then demonstrates how to use the line count to figure out correct number of words read. Teacher demonstrates how to use the graph.Students whisper read passage for one minute, figure out the correct number of words read and graph. Procedure is repeated for a second minuteStudents compare number of cwpm on each timing.Teacher leads class discussion on the benefits of repeated reading.
57 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorSocial Aspect :Cooperation and RespectSeating ArrangementsProcedural Aspect :Tracking, Underlining and Noting Last Word ReadProviding Positive FeedbackError Correction ProceduresGail N. Adams
58 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorCooperation and RespectProcedures :Teacher discusses cooperative and respectful partnerships.For example, the teacher may say to the class, “ We are going to be working in partnerships to build reading fluency. Partners have been selected based o n assessment data. Your fluency partnership will be a working relationship for only 6 minutes of the class period. ““You do not have to be friends with your partner. You do not have to even talk to your partner outside of this classroom. However, you MUST work cooperatively and respectfully during the partner fluency time. “Gail N. Adams
59 Establish Partner Behavior Gail N. AdamsStep FourEstablish Partner BehaviorProcedures :Teacher states “No Arguing” rule and may give demonstration as to how arguing wastes fluency time.
60 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorSeating ArrangementsTeacher selects a volunteer student partner to demonstrate correct partner behavior during read - “lean in and whisper read.”Gail N. Adams.
61 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorTracking, underlining mistakes and noting last word readTeacher demonstrates keeping track of words partner reads, underlining mistakes and putting a slash mark after the last word read when the timer sounds.Gail N. Adams
62 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorProviding FeedbackThe teacher demonstrates giving polite feedback to a partner after the one-minute reading is completed.“You read 85 words. I heard 3 errors. Your correct words read per minute is 82.”Script : You read ______. I heard _____errors. Your total is ________Gail N. Adams
63 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorError Correction Procedure“ Point, Say, Ask”Gail N. AdamsThe teacher demonstrates correcting errors using the tell and repeat method which is used after the one-minute reading is completed.The teacher points to an error and says the correct word “This word is _______.” The teacher then asks his/her partner, “What word?”Partner repeats word correctly.
64 Establish Partner Behavior Step FourEstablish Partner BehaviorRecoding fluency score on graphThe teacher demonstrates marking fluency score on the graph.Gail N. Adams
66 Step Five- Train Students in Six Minute Solution Partner ProceduresMaterials Required:Copy of training passage for each student enclosed in a plastic sleeveA marking pen and an erasing cloth for each partnershipRecording sheet or graph for each student
67 Step Five- Train Students in Partner Procedures Teacher sets timer for one minute and instructs all partner 1s to read and all partner 2s to follow along and underline errors.After the timer sounds, teacher instructs all partner 2s to give feedback to all partner 1s- how many total words read, how many errors made and how many correct words per minute.Teacher instructs all partner 2s to give error correction feedback.Teacher instructs all partner 1s to graph or record their score.Teacher instructs students to change roles and get ready for the second timing. Students repeat procedure for a second minute.Procedure is repeated. Students compare number of cwpm on each timing.Note: Teacher should walk around the room and monitor carefully at all times.
68 Step 5- Partner Practice Volleyball : Up and Over55
70 Step Six- Train Students in Material ManagementMaterials Required:Portfolio for each partnership. Label each portfolio with the names of partner 1 and partner 2Each portfolio should contain 2 copies of the same passage enclosed in a plastic sleeve, a graph for each student, a pen and erasing clothPassages color coded or numbered for readability in a central file accessible to students.Timer for the teacher.
71 Step Six- Train Students in Material ManagementProcedures :Teacher shows students where portfolios and passages are kept.Teacher demonstrates taking and returning portfolios in an orderly fashion.Teacher demonstrates procedure for choosing new passages on Friday - taking passages out of enclosed plastic sleeves, having one partner return those passages to the designated file and selecting two copies of a different passage within the same readability level.
72 What If…….My Setting Doesn’t Lend Itself to Partner Practice? Use one of the following individual fluency practice modelUse a small group model
73 Adaptations for Individualized Repeated Reading Practice Option 1 : All students read passages at their own instructional level. Each student follows the same step every day.Monday - Students select a new passage, preview it independently while underlining difficult words. Teacher meets with each student individually. Teacher reads entire passage with student for accuracy, modeling fluent reading (untimed). Teacher then sets the timer for one minute and listens to the student read the passage to obtain an initial fluency score. Student records initial correct words per minute on graph. Time : Approximately 3- 4 minutes per student.Tues. Wed. Thurs. - Teacher meets with each student individually for a one minute timing. After receiving feedback from teacher, students mark their graph. While waiting for their turn with the teacher, students practice by whisper reading their own passage. Time : Approximately 2 minutes per student.Friday - Teacher meets with each student individually for a one minute FINAL timing on the weekly passage. Student records final CWPM. Students may then compare their initial with their final score. Teacher may want to have each student write a short summary of their passage.
74 Adaptations for Individualized Repeated Reading Practice Option 2 : Students read passages at their own instructional level and proceed through the steps at their own rate.Step 1 - Select passage. Student chooses a new passage and previews it independently while underlining difficult words.Step 2 - Accuracy Check. Teacher then reads entire passage with student for accuracy, modeling fluent reading (untimed).Step 3- Obtain initial fluency score. Student reads passage to teacher while being timed for one minute. Teacher tells student how many correct words were read and assists students in correcting any errors. Student then records initial cwpm on graph.Step 4- Teacher and student conference to determine the student’s target goal. Consider the readability and corresponding desirable fluency rate as well as the student’ s reading skills and motivation. The target goal should be attainable and as a general rule between 20 and 40 words above the initial goal.Step 5 - Student meets with teacher every day and reads the passage for one minute. After receiving feedback from the teacher, student records correct words per minute on the graph.Step 6- Student reaches target goal with 3 or fewer errors..
75 Adaptations for Repeated Reading in a Small Group Setting Repeated reading practice can also be implemented in a small group setting such as within a Literature Circle or Guided Reading Group using the same passage at the same instructional level.Unpracticed TimingTime the students for one minute.Students should whisper read.Ask students to underline difficult words and circle the last word read.Guide students in determining the correct number of words read and ask them to record it at the bottom of the page.Accuracy Building- PracticeChorally read material with studentsModel fluent reading.
76 Adaptations for Repeated Reading in a Small Group Setting Fluency Building- PracticeAsk students to whisper read for one minute.Students should try to get beyond their cold timing.Final TimingAsk students to write their name at the top of the page and to erase all markings.Have students exchange papers with partners.Have one partner read while the other follows along, underlines any word errors and circles the last word read.Repeat with roles reversed.Ask partners to determine the correct number of words read and record at top of page.Have partners return papers. Students should then graph their own timings.
77 How can we incorporate writing into this program?
78 Summary Writing Frame This passage was about __________ ___________________. First, I learned ___________________. Next, I learned___________________. Finally, I learned ______________________.
79 Summary Writing FrameTopic Sentence ( name the who or the what and tell the most important thing about the who or the what). One important fact is __________________.Another important fact is ____________.A final important fact is __________________________.
80 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 1: Is the noise level distracting when so many students are reading aloud at the same time?Answer: Although teachers are often initially concerned about noise level, they usually find that if students are well trained in partner behavior – “lean in and whisper read”- it is not an issue. Partnerships are usually reading different passages so there is little if none “echo reading” which reduces the distraction.Most students are not at all bothered by the noise as they have been raised in a multi-sensory world. If the noise is distracting to a sensitive student, however, that partnership could read in the corner of the room or outside the door.
81 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 2:What happens when one partner is absent?Answer: For the occasional absence, there are several options:#1 The teacher or an instructional aide could substitute for the absent partner. If two different partnerships have an absent partner, the teacher can listen to one student read for one minute and then go to the other partnership and listen to that student read for the second minute. The solo partners would whisper read to themselves during the second timing.#2 Temporary partners could be assigned just for the day based on attendance. For example, if two partnerships were reading passages at the same readability level and each had an absent partner for the day, then a temporary partnership could be formed.# 3 –Students from a neighboring classroom could be assigned to substitute for an absent partner.
82 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 3 What do you do in the case of a permanent odd number of students- i.e. 27 assigned to one class or period?Answer:A: The teacher would assign some students to a triad rather than to a partnership. Three students whose fluency and reading levels closely match would be selected to form a triad. Partner 1, (the stronger reader), and Partner 2a (the next stronger reader) will read on the first day with partner 2b monitoring.On the second day, partners 2a and 2b will read and partner 1 will monitor. On the third day, partner 2b and partner 1 will reading and partner 2a will monitor. On the fourth day, partner 1 and partner 2a will read again and partner 2b will monitor.Note: If there are triads in a classroom, the teacher would need to implement partner fluency four times a week so that each member of the triad would an opportunity to read the passage three times during the week.
83 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 4:What happens if a student’s skills are so far below that of the rest of the class that he/she can not be matched with a partner?Answer:: In that case, the “outlying” student could be pairedwith a student tutor, a classroom volunteer or a paraprofessional. Another possibility would be to tape the material and have the student work independently listening to the tape rather than to a partner.
84 Frequently Asked Questions Question# 5: : Should a student who reads less than 40 correct words per minute still practice passage reading?Answer:: Students reading less than 40 to 60 correct words per minute most likely need to increase their sight word vocabulary. These students could benefit from fluency practice at the single word level. These students could practice reading high frequency (automatic) words. The goal would be for the student to eventually read 60 correct high frequency words in a minute.It is important to have students reading passages for fluency building as soon as possible to encourage skill generalization. It is possible that some students would practice both types of fluency - passage and single word- on an alternating basis.
85 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 6: What if neither partner knows some of the words in their passage?Answer: On the first day of the week, all student partnerships have new passages. Before students begin fluency practice, they preview the entire passage for accuracy while underlining unknown words. The teacher should monitor carefully, supplying any words unknown to either partner. It is important to make certain that students are accurate before they begin fluency building practice.Note: When students are properly placed at their instructional reading level, they should be 91-96% accurate. If their accuracy rate is below that level, they are misplaced and need to be reassigned passages at a lower readability level.
86 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 7: How often should the teacher review the partnership folders?Answer: At least once a month.Keep in mind, though, that during the daily six-minute fluency practice, the teacher should walk around the room and monitor very closely. Daily monitoring is essential as it enables the teacher to have a good idea of how each partnership is functioning.
87 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 8: How does the teacher know when to move a partnership up to the next readability level?Answer: Generally speaking, the students will work at the same readability level for at least six weeks. However, some students will need to remain on the same level for much longer. When the teacher notices that the partners are reaching the upper range of the fluency level for their level, it is time to conference with the partners and discuss moving to the next level.Remember that students must practice fluency building on material for which they are 91 to 96% accurate.On the other hand, they need to be moved to the next level just as quickly as they are ready in order to accelerate their reading gains.
88 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 9 : How often should partnerships be changed?Answer:It is recommended that students be assessed for fluency three times during a school year. Partnerships would be then be reassigned based on that fluency data. During the interval, some partnerships can remain the same while others need to be changed more frequently.As a general rule change partners if:1. Partners are progressing at a very uneven rate.2. Partners are not cooperating with each other after teacher intervention and conferencing.
89 Frequently Asked Questions Question # 10 : What kind of results have been obtained using the Six Minute Solution model?Answer: There are three field tests cited in the Six Minute Solution.Field Test I-Data was collected on 52 sixth grade students attending a 24 day summer intervention program for students reading at least two years below grade level. The average fluency gain for these students was 36% with an average gain of 26% in comprehension.Field Test II- Data was collected on 92 middle school students receiving one hour of reading support four days a week in a mandatory reading class. 99% of the students demonstrated measurable growth in oral reading fluency.Field Test III- Six Minute Solution was implemented in two upper elementary ( 4th and 5th grade classrooms) over a three month period. 95% of the students demonstrated a significant gain in oral reading fluency.
91 Volleyball: Up and Over Practice Passage 519 12243749627791103111127143159174189203218234250264279284A man named William Morgan invented the game of volleyball in 1895.Morgan was a physical education teacher in a Massachusetts YMCA. He wasinterested in a game that would require less effort than basketball. He alsowanted a game in which opponents did not come into physical contact.Morgan designed a team game that consisted of the tapping of a ballback and forth across a net. Morgan’s game is one in which teams are onopposite sides of the net. In volleyball, the players do not move around toomuch. Once an indoor game, volleyball later became popular as an outsidegame as well. It is played worldwide today.Volleyball is played on a field or court that is divided by a net. Thereare six players on each team. Three of the players play in the front, close tothe net, and three play in the back. The volleyball is a rubber ball covered inleather. To begin the game, the ball is served by the player who stands atthe right back of the volleyball court. The ball must go over the net withoutfirst touching the ground, another player or the net. After the serve, the ballis tapped back and forth across the net by each team until one team isunable to return a ball. The ball must be tapped or batted by hand and maynot be lifted or pushed. If the serving team fails to serve fairly or fails toreturn a serve successfully, it loses the serve. If the defending team fails toreturn a serve, then the serving team scores a point. The game is won whenone team scores fifteen points.Total Words Read _______ Errors _______= CWPM_______284 Words32c