2The Imperial Menu A pleased Uncle Sam gets ready to place his order with headwaiter William McKinley. Swallowing some of these possessions eventually produced political indigestion.
3Imperialism America wanted to expand Spurred by yellow journalism and missionariesSocial DarwinismThe Influence of Sea Power Upon History by Alfred Thayer Mahan 1890James G. Blaine and the Big Sister Policy- Pan American Conference 1889
4Great Britain vs. Venezuela Boundary issue between British Guiana and Venezuela- gold discovered thereUS letter sent by Secretary of State Richard Olney to GB (Monroe Doctrine)GB= mind your own businessOn the brink of war, but issue calmed down (anger redirected at Germany)GB= arbitration, Monroe Doctrine enhancedGreat Rapprochement
5They Can’t Fight Britain and America waged a war of words during the Venezuelan boundary dispute, but cooler heads prevailed. A new era of diplomatic cooperation between the two former foes dawned, as they saw themselves bound together by ties of language, culture, and mutual economic interest. As the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck reportedly remarked, “The supreme geopolitical fact of the modern era is that the Americans speak English.”
6Hawaii Hawaii= long been desired by US 1887: naval base at Pearl HarborProblems arose with McKinley Tariff 1890 bad for US sugar companiesAnnexation! Blocked by Queen Liliuokalani and Grover ClevelandWould remain a “republic” for 5 years before annexation in 1898
8Cuba 1895: Cuban revolt against Spain Insurrectos used scorched earth US business!= $50 million + $100 million/year in tradeSpanish General Weyler (Butcher)Cleveland= anti-imperialist, anti-jingoist
9The Maine Yellow journalism- Hearst and Pulitzer 1898 the Maine sent to Havana harborFebruary 15, 1898: Maine exploded in Havana harbor2 investigations= Spanish and American conclusions“Remember the Maine!”
10The Explosion of the Maine, February 15, 1898 Encouraged and amplified by the “yellow press,” the outcry over the tragedy of the Maine helped drive the country into an impulsive war against Spain.
14War with Spain 2 demands met by Spain- Americans still called for war Jingoes: “Wobbly Willie”McKinley reluctant towards war- couldn’t deny public opinionApril 11, 1898: war message sent to Congress- war declaredTeller Amendment
15War with Spain Civil War veterans commanding army in tropics 28,000 soldiers and 2,100 officers vs. 200,000 SpanishOnly real friend= GBUS had a strong steel navy (Navy Secretary John D. Long and assistant Secretary TR)Commodore George Dewey Philippines
17PhilippinesDewey waited in Manila Bay harbor for US soldiers- possible problems with GermansEmilio AguinaldoAnnexation of Hawaii- July 7, 1898 territorial status 1900
18Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1869–1964) and Followers, 1900 Aguinaldo had a colorfully checkered career. Exiled from the Philippines by the Spanish in 1897, he was brought back in 1898 to assist the American invasion. A year later he led the Filipino insurrection against the new American rulers. Captured in 1901, he declared his loyalty to the United States. During World War II, he collaborated with the Japanese when they occupied the Philippines…
19Cuba Spanish navy= Admiral Cervera at Santiago US strategy led by General William R. ShafterRough Riders- TR17,000 man army on transports from Tampa mid JuneShafter landed at Guantanamo Bay pushed toward SantiagoJuly 1st: Battle of El Caney and San Juan Hill
23Colonel Theodore Roosevelt with Some of the “Rough Riders” Roosevelt later described his first encounter with the Spanish enemy: “Soon we came to the brink of a deep valley. There was a good deal of cracking of rifles way off in front of us, but as they used smokeless powder we had no idea as to exactly where they were, or who they were shooting at. Then it dawned on us that we were the target. The bullets began to come overhead, making a sound like the ripping of a silk dress, with sometimes a kind of pop We advanced, firing at them, and drove them off.”
25Puerto Rico Surrender of Santiago after entire Spanish fleet destroyed May 12th: navy attacked at Puerto Rico followed by General Nelson A. Miles June 25thHelp from Puerto RicansMajor killers- malaria, typhoid, dysentery, yellow fever = evacuation of 80%
26End of the War Armistice called for August 12, 1898 Treaty of Paris (again!)= Cuba, Guam, Puerto RicoTechnicality over Philippines Americans unsure if they wanted it tooMissionaries and business= pay Spain $20 million
28Questions of Imperialism Philippines= un-assimilatableAnti Imperialist League formedExpansionists= Philippines is an opportunity White Man’s BurdenTreaty of Paris helped passed by William Jennings Bryan! (anti- imperialism)
29Questions of Imperialism Puerto Rico- Foraker Act 1900Insular Cases- does the Constitution follow the flag?US military government in Cuba under General Leonard Wood eradicate yellow feverAbided by Teller amendment with 2 insistences Platt Amendment and Guantanamo Bay
30Questions of Imperialism Spanish-American War: 113 days, low casualties, big payout“splendid little war”Naval power proven (Mahan)Growth of jingoism, healing of North-South divide
32Philippine-American War Philippines angry over lack of independenceWarfare and guerrilla warfare led by Emilio AguinaldoReconcentration camps and tortureUS opposition from Anti-ImperialistsPhilippine Commission
33Open Door PolicyEconomic imperialism in China following Sino-Japanese WarSecretary of State John Hay’s Open Door note (policy)Boxer Rebellion 1900 international coalition to put downIndemnity to be paid by ChinaExtension of Open Door to include territorial integrity
351900 ElectionRepublicans= William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt (VP)Platform: gold standard, “full dinner pail,” successful war, expansionDemocrats= William Jennings Bryan (silver and anti-imperialism)TR sapped many midwestern votes“Bryanism” could hurt prosperity= McKinley victory 292 vs. 155 EV
38TR and Big Stick Diplomacy September 6, 1901: McKinley assassinated by Leon CzolgoszTR: “that damned cowboy” big personality and popular with regular peopleBig Stick Diplomacy- “Walk softly and carry a big stick”
40Panama Canal Spanish-American War= renewed interest in canal The OregonHay Pauncefote Treaty 1901 (undid Clayton-Bulwer Treaty)US bought rights to canal from French (Philippe Bunau-Varilla)Colombia stood in way1904 election approaching!
41Panama CanalPanama Revolution November 3, 1903 Colombia blocked by US navyUS recognized new Panamanian “government” 3 days laterHays- Bunau-Varilla Treaty (same price, 10 mile area)US- Latin American relations ↓ (Big Brother)TR= “mandate from civilization”
43Panama CanalCanal building started 1904 (labor, landslides, sanitation issues)Colonel George Washington Goethals (head of engineering)Colonel William Gorgas (head of sanitation yellow fever, malaria)Finished 1914 (WWI soon)
46Roosevelt Corollary Debt ridden Latin America= nervous TR Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine)Regional police force (economic) and soon turned to military to intervene“Bad Neighbor Policy”
47Russia vs. Japan 1904 Russo-Japanese War over Port Arthur and Korea Railroad in Manchuria threatened Japanese sphere of influence= warJapan= westernized, Russia ↓ under czarTR as mediator with Portsmouth Treaty 1905= Nobel Peace Prize!
48US vs. Japan Racism and lack of citizenship for Japanese immigrants “the yellow peril,” segregated San Francisco schools= Japan angryGentlemen’s AgreementThe Great White Fleet 1907= 43,000 miles to show off US navyRoot-Takahira Agreement 1908