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Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion 1890-1909.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion 1890-1909."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion

2 The Imperial Menu A pleased Uncle Sam gets ready to place his order with headwaiter William McKinley. Swallowing some of these possessions eventually produced political indigestion.

3 Imperialism America wanted to expand
Spurred by yellow journalism and missionaries Social Darwinism The Influence of Sea Power Upon History by Alfred Thayer Mahan 1890 James G. Blaine and the Big Sister Policy- Pan American Conference 1889

4 Great Britain vs. Venezuela
Boundary issue between British Guiana and Venezuela- gold discovered there US letter sent by Secretary of State Richard Olney to GB (Monroe Doctrine) GB= mind your own business On the brink of war, but issue calmed down (anger redirected at Germany) GB= arbitration, Monroe Doctrine enhanced Great Rapprochement

5 They Can’t Fight Britain and America waged a war of words during the Venezuelan boundary dispute, but cooler heads prevailed. A new era of diplomatic cooperation between the two former foes dawned, as they saw themselves bound together by ties of language, culture, and mutual economic interest. As the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck reportedly remarked, “The supreme geopolitical fact of the modern era is that the Americans speak English.”

6 Hawaii Hawaii= long been desired by US
1887: naval base at Pearl Harbor Problems arose with McKinley Tariff 1890 bad for US sugar companies Annexation! Blocked by Queen Liliuokalani and Grover Cleveland Would remain a “republic” for 5 years before annexation in 1898

7 Queen Liliuokalani (1838– 1917)

8 Cuba 1895: Cuban revolt against Spain Insurrectos used scorched earth
US business!= $50 million + $100 million/year in trade Spanish General Weyler (Butcher) Cleveland= anti-imperialist, anti-jingoist

9 The Maine Yellow journalism- Hearst and Pulitzer
1898 the Maine sent to Havana harbor February 15, 1898: Maine exploded in Havana harbor 2 investigations= Spanish and American conclusions “Remember the Maine!”

10 The Explosion of the Maine, February 15, 1898 Encouraged and amplified by the “yellow press,” the outcry over the tragedy of the Maine helped drive the country into an impulsive war against Spain.



13 The Explosion of the Maine, February 15, 1898

14 War with Spain 2 demands met by Spain- Americans still called for war
Jingoes: “Wobbly Willie” McKinley reluctant towards war- couldn’t deny public opinion April 11, 1898: war message sent to Congress- war declared Teller Amendment

15 War with Spain Civil War veterans commanding army in tropics
28,000 soldiers and 2,100 officers vs. 200,000 Spanish Only real friend= GB US had a strong steel navy (Navy Secretary John D. Long and assistant Secretary TR) Commodore George Dewey Philippines

16 Dewey’s Route in the Philippines, 1898

17 Philippines Dewey waited in Manila Bay harbor for US soldiers- possible problems with Germans Emilio Aguinaldo Annexation of Hawaii- July 7, 1898 territorial status 1900

18 Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1869–1964) and Followers, 1900 Aguinaldo had a colorfully checkered career. Exiled from the Philippines by the Spanish in 1897, he was brought back in 1898 to assist the American invasion. A year later he led the Filipino insurrection against the new American rulers. Captured in 1901, he declared his loyalty to the United States. During World War II, he collaborated with the Japanese when they occupied the Philippines…

19 Cuba Spanish navy= Admiral Cervera at Santiago
US strategy led by General William R. Shafter Rough Riders- TR 17,000 man army on transports from Tampa mid June Shafter landed at Guantanamo Bay pushed toward Santiago July 1st: Battle of El Caney and San Juan Hill




23 Colonel Theodore Roosevelt with Some of the “Rough Riders” Roosevelt later described his first encounter with the Spanish enemy: “Soon we came to the brink of a deep valley. There was a good deal of cracking of rifles way off in front of us, but as they used smokeless powder we had no idea as to exactly where they were, or who they were shooting at. Then it dawned on us that we were the target. The bullets began to come overhead, making a sound like the ripping of a silk dress, with sometimes a kind of pop We advanced, firing at them, and drove them off.”


25 Puerto Rico Surrender of Santiago after entire Spanish fleet destroyed
May 12th: navy attacked at Puerto Rico followed by General Nelson A. Miles June 25th Help from Puerto Ricans Major killers- malaria, typhoid, dysentery, yellow fever = evacuation of 80%

26 End of the War Armistice called for August 12, 1898
Treaty of Paris (again!)= Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico Technicality over Philippines Americans unsure if they wanted it too Missionaries and business= pay Spain $20 million

27 The New Jingoism

28 Questions of Imperialism
Philippines= un-assimilatable Anti Imperialist League formed Expansionists= Philippines is an opportunity White Man’s Burden Treaty of Paris helped passed by William Jennings Bryan! (anti- imperialism)

29 Questions of Imperialism
Puerto Rico- Foraker Act 1900 Insular Cases- does the Constitution follow the flag? US military government in Cuba under General Leonard Wood eradicate yellow fever Abided by Teller amendment with 2 insistences Platt Amendment and Guantanamo Bay

30 Questions of Imperialism
Spanish-American War: 113 days, low casualties, big payout “splendid little war” Naval power proven (Mahan) Growth of jingoism, healing of North-South divide


32 Philippine-American War
Philippines angry over lack of independence Warfare and guerrilla warfare led by Emilio Aguinaldo Reconcentration camps and torture US opposition from Anti-Imperialists Philippine Commission

33 Open Door Policy Economic imperialism in China following Sino-Japanese War Secretary of State John Hay’s Open Door note (policy) Boxer Rebellion 1900 international coalition to put down Indemnity to be paid by China Extension of Open Door to include territorial integrity


35 1900 Election Republicans= William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt (VP) Platform: gold standard, “full dinner pail,” successful war, expansion Democrats= William Jennings Bryan (silver and anti-imperialism) TR sapped many midwestern votes “Bryanism” could hurt prosperity= McKinley victory 292 vs. 155 EV

36 Theodore Roosevelt


38 TR and Big Stick Diplomacy
September 6, 1901: McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgosz TR: “that damned cowboy” big personality and popular with regular people Big Stick Diplomacy- “Walk softly and carry a big stick”


40 Panama Canal Spanish-American War= renewed interest in canal
The Oregon Hay Pauncefote Treaty 1901 (undid Clayton-Bulwer Treaty) US bought rights to canal from French (Philippe Bunau-Varilla) Colombia stood in way 1904 election approaching!

41 Panama Canal Panama Revolution November 3, 1903 Colombia blocked by US navy US recognized new Panamanian “government” 3 days later Hays- Bunau-Varilla Treaty (same price, 10 mile area) US- Latin American relations ↓ (Big Brother) TR= “mandate from civilization”


43 Panama Canal Canal building started 1904 (labor, landslides, sanitation issues) Colonel George Washington Goethals (head of engineering) Colonel William Gorgas (head of sanitation yellow fever, malaria) Finished 1914 (WWI soon)



46 Roosevelt Corollary Debt ridden Latin America= nervous TR
Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine) Regional police force (economic) and soon turned to military to intervene “Bad Neighbor Policy”

47 Russia vs. Japan 1904 Russo-Japanese War over Port Arthur and Korea
Railroad in Manchuria threatened Japanese sphere of influence= war Japan= westernized, Russia ↓ under czar TR as mediator with Portsmouth Treaty 1905= Nobel Peace Prize!

48 US vs. Japan Racism and lack of citizenship for Japanese immigrants
“the yellow peril,” segregated San Francisco schools= Japan angry Gentlemen’s Agreement The Great White Fleet 1907= 43,000 miles to show off US navy Root-Takahira Agreement 1908


50 United States Expansion, 1857–1917


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