Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN IMPERIALISM 1890-1913 “The New Manifest Destiny”"— Presentation transcript:
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM 1890-1913 “The New Manifest Destiny”
Causes of American Imperialism End of the frontier, 1890 –Expand or explode –Natural resources –Panic of 1893 –Labor violence and agricultural discontent Foreign trade important to economy –Expansion of markets Competition with European powers –International prestige –Europeans = 1/5 land, 1/10 population of the globe –“Place in the Sun” for Germany and Italy
Proponents of American Imperialism Alfred Mahan –“The Influence of Sea Power on History” Canal Zone Josiah Strong –“Our Country” Superiority of Anglo-Saxon TR and Henry Cabot Lodge –Social Darwinism Albert Beveridge –“Ordained by God” “Yellow Journalism” –Hearst and Pulitzer
Pan-Americanism James G. Blaine –“Big Brother” policy –Pan American Conference, 1889 Rejected “inter-American” customs Fear of US dominance
Samoan Islands Crisis Pago Pago –US versus the Germans (and British) Naval skirmish, 1889 American Samoa, included Pago Pago –“coaling stations”
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute, 1895-1896 Gold between British Guiana and Venezuela –Disputed territory Violation of Monroe Doctrine? –Cleveland mediation rejected Boer War forces Great Britain to arbitration –South Africa
Acquisition of the Hawaiian Islands, 1898 Biggest imperialist debate in Congress –American planters vs. Queen Liliukalani, 1893 Sugar Tariffs –Cleveland opposes Use force to unseat Americans? Public opinion against Cleveland –Need harbor for Spanish American War
Cuban Insurrectos, 1890s Atrocities in Cuba by Spanish –Cuban workers bore the brunt of Wilson –Gorman Tariff, 1894 Reconcentrado camps –100,000 dead between 1896-1898 –“Butcher” Wyler Yellow Journalism –Hearst and Pulitzer “You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the war” Battleship USS Maine –de Lome letter –Explosion of Maine in Havana Harbor –“To Hell with Spain, remember the Maine”!
Spanish-American War, 1898 McKinley reluctant to go to war –Pushed by public opinion (Yellow Journalism) –Spain agrees to Cuban independence –Teller Amendment Admiral Dewey victorious at Manila Bay –TR involved as Secretary of Navy –Spanish fleet “hollow” –Emilio Aguinaldo, freedom fighter Pearl Harbor needed for military use –Annexation of Hawaiian islands Treaty of Paris, 1898 –Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Platt Amendment in Cuba –Insular Cases ****
American Imperialism in Asia Open Door Policy in China, 1899 –“spheres of influence” –Open trade between European powers Box Rebellion, 1900 –“Foreign Devils” –American indemnity Russo-Japanese War, 1905 –TR receives Nobel Prize (Treaty of Portsmouth) San Francisco Schoolboard Incident –Gentlemen’s Agreement American-Japanese Relations –Root-Takahira Agreement, 1908 –“Great White Fleet” –Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917 “Dollar Diplomacy” (Taft)
The Great War Begins!!!! 1914 What do ya know about The Great War? –Remember your World History…?