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The “New” Imperialism 1878 - 1914. Is the “New” Imperialism New? Not new – U.S. continually expanding New in two senses: Non-contiguous expansion Colonization,

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Presentation on theme: "The “New” Imperialism 1878 - 1914. Is the “New” Imperialism New? Not new – U.S. continually expanding New in two senses: Non-contiguous expansion Colonization,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The “New” Imperialism

2 Is the “New” Imperialism New? Not new – U.S. continually expanding New in two senses: Non-contiguous expansion Colonization, not usurpation Tied to economic expansion U.S. exports increase from $234 million in 1865 to $1.5 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1914 Particularly in Latin America: by 1914,... U.S. exported $300 million worth of goods to region U.S. investments in region totaled $1.26 billion

3 Growth of Exports,

4 U.S. Intervention in the Caribbean

5 American Exceptionalism Rev. Josiah Strong (Our Country, 1885): U.S. chosen by God to uplift the world “As America goes, so goes the world” Continued belief in “Manifest Destiny” – new frontier was overseas Missionaries spread both Christianity & American culture as package deal Undergirded by racist belief in “White Man’s Burden”

6 U.S. Imperial Expansion Alaska purchased from Russia in 1867 U.S. divided Samoa with British & Germans in 1889; annexed 1899 Sanford Dole led revolution in Hawaii in 1893; annexed in 1898

7 The Road to War with Spain José Martí collected money, men & arms in U.S. to start 1895 revolt Americans appalled by Gen. Weyler’s brutality & “reconcentration policy” William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal published sensational stories, but only inflamed existing passions De Lôme Letter (pub. Feb. 9, 1898) called Pres. McKinley “weak” U.S.S. Maine exploded & sank in Havana Feb. 15, 1898, killing 266 of 354 American sailors

8 U.S.S. Maine The wreckage of the Maine

9 McKinley Forces the Issue McKinley sent ultimatum to Spain Demanded end to hostilities & reconcentration Insisted U.S. mediate a settlement Rejected by Spain April 10 April 19: Congress passed joint resolution to force resolution Teller Amendment disavowed annexation April 22: U.S. Navy began blockade of Cuba April 24: Spain declared war on U.S. Pres. William McKinley

10 The Caribbean Theater June 22 – siege of Santiago began July 1 – Battle of San Juan & Kettle Hills July 13 – Santiago surrendered Puerto Rico captured without a fight Aug. 12 – armistice signed

11 The Philippines Theater May 1 - George Dewey’s fleet defeats the Spanish in Manila Bay Dewey joined forces with rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo Aug. 13 – Manila surrendered

12 Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders

13 Battle of Kettle Hill

14 Effects of Imperialism - Caribbean Treaty of Paris (Dec. 1898; ratified Feb. 1899): U.S. got Philippines, Guam & Puerto Rico Spain got $20 million Cuba granted independence (became U.S. protectorate) Platt Amendment gave U.S. control over Cuba’s foreign policy & right of intervention Foraker Act (1900) denied U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans (got it in 1917) Insular Cases – Supreme Court ruled Constitution doesn’t follow the flag

15 Effects of Imperialism - Asia Dewey denied promising Aguinaldo independence Guerilla war vs. Aguinaldo’s rebels in the Philippines, ,000 Filipinos killed 5,000 Americans killed U.S. soon realized difficulty of defending islands against Japanese aggression, so cut deals: Taft-Katsura Agreement (1905): U.S. recognized Japan’s conquest of Korea Root-Takahira Agreement (1907): U.S. recognized Japanese control of Manchuria Emilio Aguinaldo George Dewey

16 Anti-Imperialist Sentiment

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19 The Panama Canal Hay-Paunceforte Treaty (1901): Britain allowed U.S. to build canal by itself 1903 treaty paying Colombia $10 million and $250 thousand a year in rent rejected by Colombian Senate Philippe Bunau-Varilla staged revolt in Panama with U.S. help Canal completed in 1914 U.S. ruled Canal Zone

20 Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy


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