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THE GILDED AGE Reconstruction to 1896. Gilded Age Who? What was the Gilded Age? Time of economic growth and ostentatious displays of wealth Cause? 2 nd.

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Presentation on theme: "THE GILDED AGE Reconstruction to 1896. Gilded Age Who? What was the Gilded Age? Time of economic growth and ostentatious displays of wealth Cause? 2 nd."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE GILDED AGE Reconstruction to 1896

2 Gilded Age Who? What was the Gilded Age? Time of economic growth and ostentatious displays of wealth Cause? 2 nd Industrial Revolution Result? A) new group of wealthy B) impoverished workers

3 REPUBLICANS DOMINATED POLITICS IN WITH EXCEPTIONS OF CLEVELAND AND WILSON DEMS STRONG IN THE SOUTH EVERY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION WAS A SQUEEKER

4 REPUBLICANS NORTHERN WHITES ( PRO-BUSINESS) BLACKS NORTHERN PROTESTANTS MIDDLE CLASS ANTI- IMMIGRANT GROUPS

5 DEMOCRATS WHITE SOUTHENERS ( WHITE SUPREMACY) CATHOLICS RECENT IMMIGRANTS- ESP JEWS URBAN WORKERS MOSTLY FARMERS

6 IN GENERAL MOST PRESIDENTS AFTER CW WERE FORGETTABLE ( H, G,A, H) ( C was ok) GREATEST PROBLEMS FACED HAD TO DO WITH A) PATRONAGE B) POLITICAL STALEMATE MOST POLITICIANS “TIPTOED TIMIDLY” MOST AMERICANS NOT REALY CONCERNED ABOUT POLITICAL LEADERS –more with making money and surviving

7 THE FORGETTABLES Grant Great general Lousy president He was corrupt but many of his appointments were

8 HAYES: A)DID TRY TO BRING HONESTY TO GOVERNMENT B)TRIED TO LIMIT CHINESE IMMIGRATION Why? West Coast Irish thought Chinese taking jobs- anti- Chinese led by Dennis Kearney ( Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited nearly all immigration from China- stayed shut until 1943 )

9 Some tried to limit citizenship for Chinese but +++ Supreme Court Case U.S. vs Wong Kim Ark guaranteed citizenship to all persons born in the USA

10 James Garfield

11 GARFIELD - VP was Chester Arthur … an afterthought Waved “ the bloody shirt” Assassinated 1860, 1880, 1900, 1920, 1940,1960 but 1980 WHAT WAS GOOD ABOUT THE ASSASSINATION?

12

13 CAUSED POLITICIANS INTO REFORMING THE SPOILS SYSTEM THE PENDLETON ACT A) made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal B) established the CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION appointments to federal jobs based on exams rather than “pull” At first just about 10% of Federal jobs

14 Chester Arthur

15 ARTHUR Not a reformer but tried to support Civil Service reform and end of nepotism in government

16 1884 Cleveland

17 Cleveland- not forgettable New York Democrat “Could Democrats – party of disunion- be trusted to govern the Union”? Outspoken and unbending Named two former CSA officer to Cabinet

18 POLICIES HANDS OFF BUSINESS- LAISSEZ-FAIRE TRIED TO REFORM CORRUPTION BUT GAVE IN TO DEMS WHO WANTED JOBS TRIED TO LOWER THE TARIFF- BUT MET OPPOSITION ( thought lower tariff good for people, treasury had TOO MUCH MONEY IN IT, less protection for monopolies BUT BUT BUT BUT

19 1888 Election= first time an issue divided the parties … in a long time What was the issue?? The tariff Republicans- Benjamin Harrison Democrats- incumbent- Cleveland Meaning of incumbent- existing office holder

20 The idea of a lower tariff pushed the Republicans forward - ANGERED REP Republicans raised 3 million dollars ( 2016 election candidate will probably raise over 2 BILLION dollars) Harrison won a narrow victory Cleveland actually had more popular votes

21 Benjamin Harrison

22 HARRISON AS PRES CONGRESS PASSED: McKinley- Tariff Act of 1890=raised the rate to about 48% New Tariff hurt farmers- countries hurt by our high tariff raised tariffs on our farm products

23 IMPORTANT new Populist / People’s Party Attempted to unite the farmers spoke in favor of: Government ownership of RR – believed RR exploited farmers, govt own telegraph and telephone Unlimited coinage of silver The direct election of senators ( Senators were elected by state legislatures at this time)

24 Referendums- word means that citizens vote directly on issues Shorter workday Immigration restrictions Populists nominated- General James Weaver And supported William Jennings Bryan in 1896

25 Election of 1892 Populist candidate Weaver received 22 electoral votes  Incumbent Harrison- 145 and  Democrat Cleveland won because Populist and Republicans were divided  “even though it was the same old Cleveland, it was not the same old country”

26 Cleveland’s second term Only President elected after a defeat Country experienced a Depression of 1893 “ the most crushing economic downturn of the 19 th century” Businesses collapsed, soup kitchens fed people, hoboes Cleveland has a ton of trouble including a tumor on the roof of his mouth

27 Cleveland alienated Democrats by asking Republican J. P. Morgan – a powerful banker Bankers lent the government 65$ in gold The loan helped to restore confidence in the nation’s finances Cleveland failed to cope with the crisis as a real leader

28 Allowed Federal troops to crush the Pullman strike+++ WORKERS WHO MADE RAILROAD PASSENGER CARS.

29 Election of 1896 “ game changer” election – why? NOT BECAUSE OF THIS: Dems nominated- young William Jennings Bryan – ( in a sense a Populist idea) Bryan viewed by some as “dangerous, crazy and radical”

30 Wm J Bryan Known as the “Boy Orator of the Platte” Speech at the Dem Convention “You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold”

31 WJBryan- great public speaker YOUNG!!

32 Meanwhile… in the South South had put in place “process” for restricting the Black vote: Literacy tests Poll taxes

33 Game changer The amount of money spent- almost bought election Manipulation of the facts “dirty tricks” But more importantly, election seemed to divide country into Big Business/ Big cities vs. poor and underprivileged

34 Dems and Populists lost because they were not able to unite under “ one tent” to defeat McKinley Republicans control the White House 96,00,08,20, 24,28

35 Wm McKinley


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