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Hayes to Cleveland 1877 - 1897. Rutherford B. Hayes (R-OH) u Defeated Sam Tilden (D-NY) in super- close election decided in Congress u Straight party-line.

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Presentation on theme: "Hayes to Cleveland 1877 - 1897. Rutherford B. Hayes (R-OH) u Defeated Sam Tilden (D-NY) in super- close election decided in Congress u Straight party-line."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hayes to Cleveland

2 Rutherford B. Hayes (R-OH) u Defeated Sam Tilden (D-NY) in super- close election decided in Congress u Straight party-line vote in electoral commission gives victory to Hayes u Compromise of 1877 softens the blow u Hayes brings dignity back to the White House after “Grantism” u Generally a pro-biz Republican

3 Political Quarrels of the Hayes Administration u Political infighting within Rep. party between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds Stalwarts = strong supporters of Grant & party loyalty Half-Breeds = more liberal & reform- minded Republicans Stalwarts led by Roscoe Conkling (NY) Half-Breeds led by James Blaine (ME)

4 Election of 1880 u Gen. Winfield S. Hancock (D-PA) u Stalwart Repubs. Wanted Grant for a 3rd (non-consecutive) term u Half-Breeds wanted Blaine Compromise candidate - James Garfield (R-OH) - a Half-Breed VP candidate - staunch Stalwart Chester Arthur (R-NY)

5 Election of 1880 u Republicans present a united front against the Dems u Garfield narrowly wins (40K pop vote) u Makes Sen. Blaine his Sec. of State Garfield made political appointments in NY that Conkling opposed u Garfield shot in July, 1881 by Charles Guiteau - disappointed Stalwart office- seeker

6 Chester A. Arthur u NY machine politician prior to presidency u People had low expectations for him - thought he would fail u Supported Civil Service Reform u Worked toward mending factional rifts in Rep. party u Fought against “Pork-Barrel” spending - vetoed millions in wasteful appropriations

7 Civil Service Reform u Following assassination of Garfield - new emphasis on curbing spoils system u Arthur cooperated w/ Congress to end granting of civil service positions as political rewards - The Pendleton Act (1883)

8 The Pendleton Act of 1883 u Applicants for some fed. jobs (>10%) tested to determine merit an effort to reduce jobs given for political reward u Prohibited collecting $ from fed. officeholders for party campaigns u Basis of modern federal civil service system

9 Election of 1884 u Dems win White House for 1st time in 28 years with Grover Cleveland (D-NY) u Reps. rejected Arthur & nominated James Blaine u Blaine favored patronage - Cleveland had a record of fighting it u Republican reformers (Mugwumps) backed Cleveland instead of Blaine

10 Grover Cleveland u Considered an able president honest and independent u Focused on lowering tariff rates Tariffs a source of fed. revenue and biz protection u Fought fraud in Civil War veterans pension claims u Earned anger of biz and vets groups

11 Election of 1888 u Republicans win back the White House with Benjamin Harrison (R-IN) u Reps. wrongly portrayed Cleveland as anti-biz and favoring free-trade (no tariffs) u Big biz contributed $$$ to defeat him u Harrison lost pop vote but won electoral u Reps. also gained control of Congress

12 Benjamin Harrison u Instead of cabinet, Harrison followed advice of 3 prominent Republicans Blaine (NY), Thomas Reed (ME), William McKinley (OH) u Rep. controlled Congress passed McKinley Tariff of 1890 Highest rates ever - as high as 50% Domestic prices , Reps. pay in 1890

13 “Czar” Reed u Reed revolutionized the role of the Speaker of the House u Changed procedural rules for reaching quorum # present instead of simply # voting u The “Reed Rules” increased efficiency of doing business Also increased the power of the Speaker u “Billion Dollar Congress”

14 Cleveland Rocks! The 1892 Presidential Race u Grover Cleveland (D-NY) u Benjamin Harrison (R-IN) u James Weaver (Populist -IA) Party of farmers and laborers Platform geared toward pro-farmer & Labor reforms u Cleveland wins - due in part to Populist draw and public resentment of Repubs.


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