Presentation on theme: "CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGE Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system The system had been based on Patronage; giving jobs."— Presentation transcript:
CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGE Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system The system had been based on Patronage; giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get elected Reformers pushed for an adoption of a merit system of hiring the most qualified for jobs The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance Applicants for federal jobs are required to take a Civil Service Exam
The Business of Politics Real politicians of the time were the Big Business owners. –Laissez-faire- Theory that the government should play a very limited role in businesses.
The Business of Politics Real politicians of the time were the Big “Business Ran politics and politics was a branch of business” Business Giants during the Gilded Age often times bribed politicians with gifts of money.
3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Bloc Republican Bloc White southerners (preservation of white supremacy) Catholics Recent immigrants (esp. Jews) Urban working poor (pro-labor) Most farmers Northern whites (pro-business) African Americans Northern Protestants Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws) Most of the middle class
PRESIDENTS OF THE GILDED AGE Rutherford B. Hayes –Wanted to Reform the Civil Service System –Called for a new set of rules to establish a MERIT SYSTEM for Civil Service – Nonelected government workers 4 Merits: 1)Those who already hold office can’t be removed unless they are not doing their job 2)Party members have no more influence on appointments than any other respectful citizen 3)No assessment for political contributions will be allowed 4)No office holder can manage an election campaign
The Republican Party –3 fractions of Republican Party Stalwarts- supported the spoils system Half-Breeds- reform spoils system Independents- opposed spoils system
1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half BreedsStalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP) compromise
1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
Chester A. Arthur: The Fox in the Chicken Coop?
PRESIDENTS CONT’D Charles Arthur –Although he was a Stalwart, actually became advocate of reform! –Signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act Established Merit Exams if you wanted a Federal Job
Pendleton Act (1883) Civil Service Act. The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. 1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
Republican “Mugwumps” Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform!
The Mugwumps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever. Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election.
The Tariff Issue After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! Mugwumps opposed it WHY??? President Cleveland’s view on tariffs???? Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election.
1884 Presidential Election Which regions voted Democratic and why? Which regions voted Republican and why?
PRESIDENTS CONT’D Grover Cleveland –Won election in 1884- became first democratic president since 1856 –Presidential campaign between his opponent James Blaine and himself was very…bad –Favored tight money policies, opposed high tariffs, and took back from the railroads some 80 million acres of land that had been granted to them.
PRESIDENTS CONT’D!! Benjamin Harrison –Won 1888 election –Harrison promised a higher tariff than Cleveland which won him a lot of support from businesses –Republicans had majority of the seats in Congress during the first 2 years of his presidency which meant he could get almost anything passed he wanted 1890- Sherman Anti-Trust Act –Sherman Silver Purchase Act-required treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver per month to increase the price of silver McKinley Tariff- Highest Tariff in the history of the country at that time (very low public support)
Changing Public Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts: Interstate Commerce Act – 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890 McKinley Tariff – 1890 Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism. Increased already high rates another 4%! Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even McKinley lost his House seat!).
1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP)
PRESIDENTS CONT’D Grover Cleveland AGAIN!! –Reelected in 1892 –Drained treasury from Harrison’s previous presidency cause nation into an economic panic in 1983 Workers lost jobs or had their wages cut Jacob Coxey organized an unemployment march on Washington D.C. Upset not only the unemployed but farmers also by repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Cleveland Loses Support Fast! The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms. Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894.
LAST ONE William McKinley –Defeated William Jennings Bryan in 1896 election –Campaign was centered around the “Gold- Silver” Debate McKinley =Gold Bryan =Silver –Returned the American economy to prosperity. –Assassinated on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz
Read pages 455-457 and complete the Section 4 Assessment 1)Ensure that all the terms and names are covered in your notes. 2)Follow the directions for summarizing, but include all of the five Presidents covered in this section. 3)In a paragraph, tell me which party you would have supported during this time. 4)What issues are important to you in the upcoming election.