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{ Ancient China 1100 BCE to 500 CE SSWH2-The Student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.

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Presentation on theme: "{ Ancient China 1100 BCE to 500 CE SSWH2-The Student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 { Ancient China 1100 BCE to 500 CE SSWH2-The Student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE

2  Early Chinese civilization under Zhou and Qin  Impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture Areas of Study

3 Why did China develop apart from other cultures ? Himalaya Mts. Pacific Ocean Taklimakan Desert Gobi Desert

4 Natural barriers isolated China from other civilizations-seas to the east, deserts to the west and northwest, mountains and the the plateau of Tibet to the south and south east. Natural barriers isolated China from other civilizations-seas to the east, deserts to the west and northwest, mountains and the the plateau of Tibet to the south and south east. MAJOR RIVER SYSTEMS: -Huang He (Yellow River) found in North China *Named yellow river-for the yellow silt known as Loess which is actually fertile soil *Named yellow river-for the yellow silt known as Loess which is actually fertile soil -Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) found in central China -Xi Jiang found in south China Challenges: Flooding, supply their own goods due to limited trade partners, Invaders found ways to invade to the west and north Geography of China

5 -2000 BC civilizations were being built around the Huang He river -The 1 st Chinese dynasty was the Xia The leader, Yu, developed ways to control The leader, Yu, developed ways to control flooding and created an irrigation system flooding and created an irrigation system -The 2 nd Chinese dynasty was the Shang (1700 BC to 1027 BC) *First family to leave written records *First family to leave written recordsCulturally: Family-Respect for one’s parents #1 virtue, patriarchal society Social class-Nobles & peasants, wood houses Religious Beliefs-Ancestory worship and use of Oracle Bones-animal bones and tortoise shells, in which priests would ask questions and interpret cracks as answers from the Gods Civilizations and dynasties

6 Chinese writing unique to others. Chinese writing unique to others.  Symbols stood for ideas or syllables, not sounds.  This allowed the many different groups who spoke different languages to all understand the same writing system.  This helped to unify a large diverse land, the disadvantage was the amount of characters that needed to be memorized Chinese Writing

7 In 1027 B.C. a people known as the Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty and adapted the culture, but also introduced: Mandate from Heaven Mandate from Heaven A new idea of royalty that claimed rulers got their authority from heaven. -the Chinese would believe in divine rule. -the Chinese would believe in divine rule. disasters could be blamed on rulers & could frequently be replaced. This led to a pattern of rise & fall of Dynasties known as the dynastic cycle. The Zhou gave large regions of land and privileges to a select few nobles who then owed loyalty to the king in return. This type of political system the Zhou introduced is called feudalism. The Zhou gave large regions of land and privileges to a select few nobles who then owed loyalty to the king in return. This type of political system the Zhou introduced is called feudalism.Contributions introduced the first coined money, improved roads & canals; introduced the first iron tools & weapons introduced the first iron tools & weapons Zhou Dynasty

8 Ancient China Neolithic ca. 12, B.C. Xia ca B.C. Shang B.C. Western Zhou B.C. Eastern Zhou B.C. Warring States period B.C. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

9 The Warring States The Zhou rule were relatively peaceful and stable until 771 B.C.E. as nomadic tribes invaded from the north and as the noble families began to fight for power against one another. The crossbow is introduced in China during this time of great conflict and chaos known as the Period of Warring States. Chinese values collapsed during this period of arrogance, chaos, and defiance. Will China be saved? By who? …..stay tuned.

10 Ancient China Neolithic ca. 12, B.C. Xia ca B.C. Shang B.C. Western Zhou B.C. Eastern Zhou B.C. Warring States period B.C. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

11 CONFUCIANISM Confucius – China’s most influential scholar / philosopher Born 551 B.C. Wanted to restore “order” to Chinese society after years of conflict in “warring states” period His answer: To help China, people must follow the Five basic Relationships based on “respect” Ruler / Subjects ; Father / Son ; Husband / Wife ; Brother / Brother ; Friend / Friend Emphasis on Family relationships filial piety – respecting the family / elders / parents Worked to improve government efficiency Created the basis of a bureaucracy (a system of departments and agencies that run the government) Education important for these civil servants (government workers) Over time, the philosophy of Confucius spread to other parts of Asia and is still practiced today “ Analects” (the teachings of Confucius) PIC: Confucious seated teaches political statesmen.-> CONFUCIUS 551 – 479 B.C. “Don’t do to others what you wouldn’t want done to yourself.” -Confucius

12 LAOZI (Lao-tzu) ca. 600 B.C. Stop thinking, and end your problems. —Lao Tzu TAOISM Laozi (or, Lao-tzu) was also a great Chinese thinker. Taoism was not meant to be a religion. It is a "Way" of life. It is a River. The Tao is the natural order of things. It is a force that flows through every living thing, as well as through the entire universe. When the Tao is in balance it is possible to find perfect happiness. “Yin-Yang” – the Universe in Balance “Taoism is a religio-philosophical tradition that has, along with Confucianism, shaped Chinese life for more than 2,000 years. The Taoist heritage, with its emphasis on individual freedom and spontaneity, laissez-faire (“hands off”) government and social primitivism, mystical experience, and techniques of self- transformation, represents in many ways the antithesis to Confucian concern with individual moral duties, community standards, and governmental responsibilities.” “Just let go, let the universe happen” and all fall back into flow! was Laozi’s answer to China’s problems and personal happiness. Called Taoism, or Daoism. The Tao was written in a time of feudal warfare and constant conflict. Lao Tzu was reflecting on a way which would stop the warfare, a path for humanity to follow which would end the conflict. And so he came up with a few pages of short verses, which became the Tao Te Ching, this is the original book of Tao. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

13 LEGALISM Legalism is the belief that order can only be restored through strict laws and force. Han Feizi, as a student, was taught in the Confucian tradition. Because of a problem with stuttering, he did not gain much success with speeches. His book, the Han Feizi, brought him some prominence during his life and ended up being the main text of the school of Legalism. He traced the cause of the chaos of the time back to a growing population. According to him, this caused a scarcity of resources which led to war and strife therefore a strong government according to law was the solution to the problem. Han Feizi died as a result of political intrigue in 233 BC, but Legalism would go on to become the philosophy which finally managed to unify China. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

14 At 13 years old, he became ruler of the new Qin Dynasty He ended the troubles – period of warring states. Of the three teachings of his day – Confucianism Daoism Legalism … he chose Legalism. Using FORCE and STRICT LAWS he restored order to China. He is China’s “First Emperor” – Shi Huangdi. He would double the size of China.

15 Doubled the size of China. Established an autocracy – a type of government where the ruler has complete control and unlimited power ! Ended the feudalism of the Zhou period and reigned and forced the nobles to move to his capital. Legalism = Total CONTROL! Banned books, controlled ideas, began to persecute the educated Scholars. He bans Confucianism! Shi-Huangdi’s soldiers persecuting scholars. Desired complete Uniformity – “sameness” – in thought and deed. Standardized writing, laws, money, weights and measurements. Forced laborers to build roads connecting one end of China to the other. The Building of the Great Wall FACTS about the Wall…… (see textbook p ) Chinese peasants were forced to work on the wall sometimes until their deaths!

16 Shi Huangdi was a tyrant and ruled with an iron hand, handing down harsh laws, and levying large tax rates that oppressed the commoners of ancient China. He tried to eliminate the teachings of Confucius, and the education system that accompanied Confucianism. In his final years, Shi Huangdi became quite withdrawn and odd-behaving. He surrounded himself with magicians and alchemists, providing them only one task: to find or create an immortality formula. Shi Huangdi became increasingly more maniacal near his death, and wanted an potion that would allow him to rule as a divine emperor forever. He died-- broken, insane, and alone--after a trip to Japan in search of this magic potion in 210 BCE. Recently discovered in 1974 by Chinese peasants who were drilling a well, the tomb of Shi Huangdi proved to be one of the greatest archaeological finds. Archaeologists were uncertain when the excavations began of the great magnitude of this site. The centerpiece of Shi Huangdi's mausoleum is the terra-cotta army of approximately 8,000 life-sized men and horses. Individually sculpted of thick terra-cotta clay, each soldier and horse is unique, each with its own style of dress (the mineral paints used to cover the figures in bright, gay colors have since dissolved), weaponry, and facial expressions. Built mainly underground, the construction itself took 700,000 prisoners of war and slaves over 36 years to construct and covers approximately four square miles. The as-yet-unearthed palace (built for Shi-Huangdi’s use in the afterlife and thus never lived in) is reputedly of legendary grandeur. Shi-Huangdi’s actual pyramidal tomb has also not been excavated yet. When the Chinese made the first announcements about the statues in 1974, many archaeologists, intellectuals and especially tourists wanted to visit the site. The Chinese communist government today has been surprisingly open about visitation (although they oversee all the digging) and even lead tours to watch the actual excavation as it takes place. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

17 Ancient China’s Dynasties Neolithic ca. 12, B.C. Xia ca B.C. Shang B.C. Western Zhou B.C. Eastern Zhou B.C. Warring States period B.C. IMPERIAL China’s Dynasties Qin 221 – 207 B.C. Western Han 206 B.C. – 9 A.D. Hsing (Huns) occupy China 9 – 25 A.D. Eastern Han (restoration) 25 – 220 A.D. Three Kingdoms (Division) 220 – 265 A.D. Chin 265 – 316 A.D. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

18 The Han Dynasty- Started when 2 warlords-Xiang Yu and Liu Bang fought. Liu Bang won and became the 1 st emperor -centralized government, decreased legalism -Wudi-continued policies and expanded the empire through war. -He set up colonies as far north as Korea and far south as Vietnam -improved the bureaucratic system. He created civil service jobs ( government jobs that could be obtained by taking examinations) The Exams were on Confucian ideas- because he valued these qualities for government workers. The Han Emperors: -The peasants paid heavy taxes and had to donate 1 month per year for labor or military. The labor expanded the great wall, canals, roads and irrigation ditches -The peasants paid heavy taxes and had to donate 1 month per year for labor or military. The labor expanded the great wall, canals, roads and irrigation ditches Future Dynasties

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20 -Inventions: Paper, horse harness, monopolies of certain goods ( salt, iron, silk, coins. THE SILK ROAD opened more trading possibilities -The emperors encouraged assimilation (process of making conquered peoples part of the Chinese culture) -Eventually- the Han dynasty collapsed due to a growing population and complicated land/tax distribution system Under the Han Emperors


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