Geography Earliest CivilizationXia DynastyShang Dynasty Travel and communication was limited due to the Gobi and Taklimakan Deserts to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the Himalaya Mountains to the southwest The river valleys were ideal for farming because the floods of the Huang He River and Chang Jiang River left silt to fertilize the soil Chinese Civilization began along the Huang He River also known as the Yellow River According to ancient stories Yu the Great was the founder of the Xia Dynasty First dynasty to have been proven by evidence
Huang He Also called the Yellow River Nearly 3,000 miles long across northern China Often floods, and has been referred to as “China’s sorrow” because of the destruction Chang Jiang The longest river in Asia; also called the Yangzi River Flows across central China from Tibet to the Pacific Ocean Two Rivers of China
Farming Early Settlements Frequent flooding made the land fertile around the Chang Jiang and Huang He rivers. Along with farming, the Chinese people hunted, fished, and domesticated animals. Small villages grew into larger cities. Findings at burial sites suggest that the ancient Chinese believed in an afterlife and had a complex social order. Civilization Begins
The Xia dynasty might have been founded around 2200 BC, by Yu the Great. Tales say that Yu dug channels to drain floodwaters and created the major waterways of North China. Archaeologists have no firm evidence that tales about the Xia dynasty are true. Xia dynasty
Shang Dynasty 1500 BC First dynasty to have been proven by evidence The King was the center of Shang political and religious life Attacked neighboring lands and expanded territory. Priests used oracle bones to make predictions Society: royal family and nobles at highest level artisans at middle level farmers and slaves at lower level Achievements: writing system, use of bronze, calendar, war chariots, and bows
Oracle Bones What’s the importance of oracle bones for people living in China today?
Shang Bronze Why would artisans have a higher social status in early Chinese civilization?
The Zhou Dynasty Create a chart in which identify the characteristics of the Zhou Dynasty: Government The Mandate of Heaven Warring States Period Structure of Society Family Relationships Economy and Technology Cultural Life
Qin Dynasty United the Warring States of China Gave himself title of Shi Huangdi (“First Emperor”) Created the Great Wall to defend from nomadic tribes in the North Created standards that unified China’s economy and culture Established a single language and characters. Produced uniform coins to be used as currency.
Qin Dynasty Established a central governing system. 36 different provinces that reported to the Emperor To prevent rebellion, he moved noble families to the capital. Created harsh rules Adopted idea of Legalism Strong leader and strong legal system needed to create social order. Censored ideas he found dangerous Implemented harsh laws
Fall of the Qin Dynasty Succeeded in creating a united China but dynasty collapsed fast. Rebellions started because of the dynasty’s harsh laws. China came back to chaos, with kingdoms fighting each other again.
Han Dynasty Strong Central Government Expansion of China Civil Service System of government employees mainly selected for skills and knowledge Silk Road Trade Route Exchange of goods Safer route to trade
Newscast Qin and Han Dynasties Qin DynastyHan Dynasty Defending the Empire Uniform Standards and the Organization of the Empire Rule of the First Emperor Legalist Government Harsh Laws Thought Control The Fall of the Qin Dynasty Reuniting and Expanding China The Structure of Government Civil Service The Silk Road