2 1. The mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk is homogenization 2. During pasteurization, milk is heated to destroy harmful bacteria.3. Most of the vitamins, minerals, protein, and sugar in milk are found in the milk solids. This milk sugar often causes problems for people who are lactose-intolerant.
3 4. Dairy products made from milk to which helpful bacteria have been added are cultured milk dairy products.5. An example of cultured milk products is yogurt or buttermilk6. Another example of a cultured milk product that has been used for centuries in the Middle East and Russia, with ties to Mohammed, is kefir
4 7. Cheese that is prepared for marketing as soon as the whey (liquid part) has been removed is unripened [This is important to know because of its ability to spoil rapidly]8. Controlled amounts of bacteria, mold, yeast, or enzymes are used to make ripened cheese9. Products that are made from other cheeses, such as Velveeta® cheese, are called processed cheeses10. For dietary health, avoid saturated fat and cholesterol from dairy products by choosing low or reduced fat and non-fat products most often.
5 11. High temperatures, acids, tannins, enzymes, and salts can curdle milk. 12. Heating can cause the lactose (milk sugar) in milk to scorch or change to a brown, bitter substance called caramel.
6 13. Sugar decreases the volume and stiffness of whipped cream 14. A cooked paste of flour and fat used to thicken classic white sauce is called a roux. The ratio of flour to fat used in this is 1 part flour to 1 part fat15. When the proteins in cheese overcoagulates, the cheese becomes tough and rubbery and the fat may separate
7 16. Processed cheese blends more easily in cooked cheese dished than natural cheese because of the emulsifiers it contains.17. Use Low to Moderate heat when preparing recipes with milk or cheese products to keep them from overcoagulating
8 18. Ice cream & pudding = Calcium rich 19. cream cheese & butter = high in fat20. roux is the foundation for Gravy & white sauces21.low fat dairy products are lower in cholesterol & helps control your weight
9 22. Listeriosis = Food-borne illness linked to soft un-ripened cheeses 23. Cut the mold off of ripened cheese24. Order of healthiest: sherbet(has fruit juice), low-fat , high fat then premiums (Ben & Jerry’s)
10 HOMEMADE BUTTER Heavy cream in a jar - (add pinch of salt) Close lid Shake, shake, shake, shake….Becomes thick – keep shaking.Curds & whey separate.Pour off liquid(buttermilk)BUTTER is left.