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Dairy Products Foods I: Fundamentals. TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Cream Cultured Dairy Products Frozen Dairy Products Concentrated Dairy Products Non-Dairy.

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Presentation on theme: "Dairy Products Foods I: Fundamentals. TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Cream Cultured Dairy Products Frozen Dairy Products Concentrated Dairy Products Non-Dairy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dairy Products Foods I: Fundamentals

2 TYPES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Cream Cultured Dairy Products Frozen Dairy Products Concentrated Dairy Products Non-Dairy Products Butter Cheese

3 MILK Can be plain or flavored (chocolate, strawberry, etc.) Usually fortified with VITAMIN D Meaning that it is added as a bonus! Raw milk is straight from the cow (untreated) It is generally then processed in the following ways before it is sent to stores: Pasteurized: Process of heating to destroy harmful bacteria Homogenized: Process of agitating milk to help distribute the fat throughout so it’s uniform in texture (not clumpy)

4 TYPES OF MILK UHT Milk – milk that is treated a super high temperatures to kill bacteria Can be stored for up to 6 months without refrigeration Whole Milk Contains more than 3.25% milkfat 2% Milk Contains roughly 2% milkfat 1% Milk Contains roughly 1% milkfat Skim (Fat-Free) Milk Contains less than.5% milkfat

5 CREAM Cream is a more concentrated form of milk Once a cow is milked, the solids float to top (milkfat) and they are skimmed off and this becomes cream! It comes in the following varieties: Heavy (whipping) Cream Higher percentage of fat (85% cream, 15% milk) Light (whipping) Cream Lower percentage of fat (70% cream, 30% milk) Half & Half Even less fat (half 50% cream, half 50% milk) To Make Whipped Cream: Use cold bowl and whip cream until frothy… to sweeten, gradually add sugar little by litte DO NOT OVERBEAT, or it will deflate and turn into butter!

6 CULTURED Made from cultured, or specially grown bacteria Usually thick in texture & tangy in flavor Examples of cultured dairy products include: Yogurt This is the dairy product with the lowest amt of fat Can be substituted for sour cream to reduce the fat in a recipe Sour Cream Buttermilk

7 FROZEN Dairy products that have been prepared and stored at very low temperatures ICE CREAM Made from milk, cream, sugar and flavoring Generally has about 6-8 grams of fat REDUCED FAT has about 4-5 grams of fat LOWFAT has less than 3 grams of fat NONFAT has less than 0.5 grams of fat SHERBERT Made from milk, sugar and fruit juice FROZEN YOGURT Made from cultured dairy product, sugar & flavoring

8 CONCENTRATED Dairy products that have had the water or liquids removed to increase the density Examples include: EVAPORATED MILK Has some water removed Can be reconstituted and used as fresh milk Available in cans SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK Has water removed and sweetener added Used most commonly in baking Cannot replace fresh milk or evaporated milk Available in cans NONFAT DRY MILK POWER Used by chefs because it does not spoil and it costs less than fresh milk Can be reconstituted and used as fresh milk Comes powdered in packets (boxes)… think hot cocoa

9 NON-DAIRY These are used a substitutes for dairy products but offer similar results Convenient because they don’t spoil as easily and can be consumed by lactose intolerant people Examples include: Soy Milk Great source of complete protein! Rice Milk Non-dairy creamer Margarine Used hydrogenated veggie oils in place of animal fats… meaning trans fat (chemically taking unsaturated and making them super- saturated!)

10 BUTTER Made by churning cream (either sweetened cream or sour cream) into butter It is usually then colored artificially and either salted or left unsalted and packaged then sold Whipped butter just incorporates more air into the churning process resulting in a less dense end product It can be frozen for a longer shelf-life but should ideally be refrigerated Can spoil if left out (resulting in BITTER BUTTER… remember Betty?!) Offers saturated fat (animal product)

11 CHEESE Created by allowing milk (un-homogenized) separate and skimming off the milkfat solids (CURDS) from the top, leaving only the liquid protein portion (WHEY) TYPES: UNRIPENED  sold immediately, not allowed to age Ex. Cottage cheese, cream cheese, ricotta cheese Better for cooking because they’re more blendable RIPENED  curds are packaged and aged (sometimes for years) Ex. Cheddar, Muenster, Provolone, Swiss… The softer the cheese, the better it is for you… while all cheeses have saturated fats, harder cheeses have higher levels PROCESSED  chemically made or altered Ex. Velveeta, cheese sauces, imitation cheese These tend to create really smooth, creamy cheeses & cheese sauces COOKING Overcooking causes cheese to become tough and rubbery

12 COOKING Dairy products are used commonly in baked goods, white sauces, soups, puddings, soufflés and frozen desserts… BUT BEWARE: SCUM FORMATION Solid layer of skin forms on top of milk when heating Can cause pressure to build up under scum and result in it boiling over Prevented by stirring constantly or covering pan SCORCHING Burning of a milk-based product as a result of caramelization of the sugars in milk (lactose) which leave product looking and tasting funny Avoid this by using a double-broiler and keeping the heat low CURDLING This is when the acids, tannins, enzymes and proteins in milk coagulate and clump together It can be prevented by using fresh milk on a low heat and stirring frequently

13 COOKING (White Sauces) White sauces are simply starch-thickened (think FLOUR) milk- based products There are 4 categories of white sauces: ROUX – made from a paste of flour and fat (usually butter) and then milk is added and thickened (by boiling & reducing) to create sauce SLURRY – made without the use of butter and by substituting fat- free milk instead; mixture is beaten in blender until smooth and then heated slowly BISQUE – base for cream soups that include shellfish; is generally rich and thick, sometimes made with cream CHOWDER – base for cream soups that include veggies, meat, poultry or fish, made by using unthickened milk They come in 3 varieties: Thin - soups Medium – creamed veggies or meats, sauces Thick - souffles

14 NUTRITION Dairy products offer a variety of crucial nutrients including: Vitamin D Fat-soluble vitamin, fortified in milk (added as bonuS!), also in SUN Prevents rickets! Vitamin A helps eyesight, fat-soluble vitamin, prevents night-blindness Calcium mineral that helps bones stay strong, prevents osteoporosis Riboflavin vitamin b2, helps to build healthy skin, hair and eyes, also helps to metabolize nutrients Complete Protein come from animals, help body to grow and repair… become and stay strong Saturated Fat come from animals, needed for insulation, to transport fat-soluble vit. (ADEK!) Simple Carbohydrates Sugars in the form of lactose (only found in milk not so much in cream) You should get up to 3 servings of dairy a day 1 serving = 1 ounce cheese (4 small dice OR 1 slice) 1 serving = 1 cup milk, yogurt, ice cream 1 serving = ½ cup ricotta

15 STORAGE Dairy is highly perishable Should be used within 1 week of fresh sale date Should be stored in tightly sealed containers, away from light This is because light destroys riboflavin (Vit. B2) CHEESE STORAGE Cheese should be stored in the refrigerator but may be frozen to prolong Hard cheeses (and sharp) will give off their odor to other foods in the fridge while softer cheese will adopt the scents that are in the fridge (like onions, garlic, etc.) If a cheese becomes moldy, you should cut off the mold within ½ inch and then it’s okay to eat mXAb3G0ek&feature=related mXAb3G0ek&feature=related


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