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Dairy Products Chapter 16. Dairy Products Milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, butter, and sherbet are all dairy products Milk, yogurt,

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Presentation on theme: "Dairy Products Chapter 16. Dairy Products Milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, butter, and sherbet are all dairy products Milk, yogurt,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dairy Products Chapter 16

2 Dairy Products Milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, butter, and sherbet are all dairy products Milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, butter, and sherbet are all dairy products Essential for good health Essential for good health Teens should get 3 servings a day Teens should get 3 servings a day Major source of calcium and contain high quality protein, phosphorous, riboflavin, and vitamins A & D Major source of calcium and contain high quality protein, phosphorous, riboflavin, and vitamins A & D

3 Selecting & Storing Dairy Products Milk Milk Processing Processing Pasteurization – heated to destroy harmful bacteria Pasteurization – heated to destroy harmful bacteria Does not change nutrition or flavor Does not change nutrition or flavor Ultra-high temperature (UHT) – uses higher temperatures than pasteurization to increase shelf life Ultra-high temperature (UHT) – uses higher temperatures than pasteurization to increase shelf life After heating milk is packaged in pre-sterilized boxes and can be stored unopened at room temperature for many months After heating milk is packaged in pre-sterilized boxes and can be stored unopened at room temperature for many months Homogenization – mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk Homogenization – mechanical process that prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk Fortified Fortified Milk is often fortified with Vitamins A & D and sometimes calcium Milk is often fortified with Vitamins A & D and sometimes calcium

4 Types of Milk Whole milk – 8 g of fat per serving Whole milk – 8 g of fat per serving Reduced-fat milk (2%) – 5 g fat per serving Reduced-fat milk (2%) – 5 g fat per serving Low-fat milk (1%) – 2.5 g fat per serving Low-fat milk (1%) – 2.5 g fat per serving Fat-free milk (skim) – only traces of fat Fat-free milk (skim) – only traces of fat

5 Side Effects Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance The body cannot produce enough lactase The body cannot produce enough lactase Lactase – the enzyme need to break down lactose Lactase – the enzyme need to break down lactose Lactose – the natural sugar found in milk Lactose – the natural sugar found in milk Gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea resulting from eating or drinking milk products Gas, cramps, bloating, and diarrhea resulting from eating or drinking milk products Lactose-reduced milk Lactose-reduced milk Treated with lactase to break down sugars Treated with lactase to break down sugars Ex. Lactaid Ex. Lactaid

6 Cream Cream – a liquid separated from milk Cream – a liquid separated from milk Heavy Whipping Cream – high in fat, whips easily Heavy Whipping Cream – high in fat, whips easily Light Whipping Cream – lower in fat, whips easily Light Whipping Cream – lower in fat, whips easily Light Cream – not as high in fat, often used in coffee Light Cream – not as high in fat, often used in coffee Half-and-half – half milk, half cream Half-and-half – half milk, half cream

7 Cultured Dairy Products Cultured – fermented by a harmless bacteria added after pasteurization Cultured – fermented by a harmless bacteria added after pasteurization Yogurt – a thick, creamy, custard-like product with a tangy flavor Yogurt – a thick, creamy, custard-like product with a tangy flavor Buttermilk – tart, buttery flavor with a smooth thick texture Buttermilk – tart, buttery flavor with a smooth thick texture Sour cream – a thick, tart, creamy product with a smooth tangy flavor Sour cream – a thick, tart, creamy product with a smooth tangy flavor

8 Concentrated Milk Products Evaporated milk – canned whole or fat-free milk containing half the water of regular milk Evaporated milk – canned whole or fat-free milk containing half the water of regular milk Sweetened condensed milk – a concentrated, sweetened form of milk Sweetened condensed milk – a concentrated, sweetened form of milk Fat-free dry milk – a powdered form of skim milk. When reconstituted, it should be handled like regular milk Fat-free dry milk – a powdered form of skim milk. When reconstituted, it should be handled like regular milk

9 Frozen Dairy Products Ice Cream – whipped frozen mixture of milk, cream, sweeteners, and flavorings Ice Cream – whipped frozen mixture of milk, cream, sweeteners, and flavorings Frozen Yogurt – similar to ice cream but uses yogurt cultures Frozen Yogurt – similar to ice cream but uses yogurt cultures Sherbet – made from milk fat, sugar, water, and flavorings Sherbet – made from milk fat, sugar, water, and flavorings

10 Frozen Dairy Products Reduced fat products – must show at least a 25% reduction in fat Reduced fat products – must show at least a 25% reduction in fat Low fat products – must not contain more than 3 grams of fat per serving Low fat products – must not contain more than 3 grams of fat per serving Nonfat products – must contain less than.5 grams of fat per serving Nonfat products – must contain less than.5 grams of fat per serving

11 Butter Butter – made from milk, cream, or a combination of both Butter – made from milk, cream, or a combination of both FDA graded for quality FDA graded for quality Grade A Grade A Grade B Grade B Sweet Butter – made without salt Sweet Butter – made without salt Salt is a preservative so, it is more perishable than regular butter Salt is a preservative so, it is more perishable than regular butter Whipped Butter – butter that has air whipped into it Whipped Butter – butter that has air whipped into it More perishable than regular butter More perishable than regular butter

12 Nondairy Products Coffee Whiteners Coffee Whiteners Whipped toppings Whipped toppings Imitation sour cream Imitation sour cream Mimic dairy products but do not contain cream Mimic dairy products but do not contain cream Made from soy protein, emulsifiers, and vegetable fats and gums Made from soy protein, emulsifiers, and vegetable fats and gums Margarine Margarine Contains vegetable oil, animal fat, or both Contains vegetable oil, animal fat, or both

13 Cost of Dairy Products National brands tend to cost more than local brands National brands tend to cost more than local brands Price differs in cost depending on fat content Price differs in cost depending on fat content Whole milk costs more than skim Whole milk costs more than skim Fluid milk costs more than dry milk Fluid milk costs more than dry milk Ounce for ounce milk sold in smaller containers costs more than larger containers Ounce for ounce milk sold in smaller containers costs more than larger containers

14 Cost of Dairy Products Home delivered milk costs more than store bought Home delivered milk costs more than store bought Frozen dessert costs depend on fat content Frozen dessert costs depend on fat content Kind, amount, flavorings, extra ingredients, and size also affect cost Kind, amount, flavorings, extra ingredients, and size also affect cost Cost of butter depends on the form Cost of butter depends on the form Sweet and whipped cost more Sweet and whipped cost more Margarine is cheaper than butter Margarine is cheaper than butter Prices vary depending on oils used and packaging Prices vary depending on oils used and packaging

15 Storing Dairy Products Highly perishable Highly perishable Cover and store in the coldest part of the refrigerator Cover and store in the coldest part of the refrigerator Cover containers tightly Cover containers tightly UHT products should be refrigerated after opening UHT products should be refrigerated after opening

16 Storing Dairy Products Store ice cream & frozen desserts tightly covered Store ice cream & frozen desserts tightly covered If frozen desserts become soft and refreeze large crystals form damaging texture If frozen desserts become soft and refreeze large crystals form damaging texture Store dried and canned milk in a cool, dry place Store dried and canned milk in a cool, dry place Reseal dried milk carefully Reseal dried milk carefully Reconstituted dried milk should be stored in the refrigerator like normal milk Reconstituted dried milk should be stored in the refrigerator like normal milk

17 Storing Dairy Products Cover unused portions of canned milk products and store in the refrigerator Cover unused portions of canned milk products and store in the refrigerator Use within a few days Use within a few days Refrigerate butter and margarine Refrigerate butter and margarine Don’t let either stand at room temperature longer than necessary Don’t let either stand at room temperature longer than necessary Freezing will extend the life of both Freezing will extend the life of both

18 Cheese Cheese is very versatile Cheese is very versatile Flavors, textures, and nutrients make suitable snack or meal Flavors, textures, and nutrients make suitable snack or meal Cheese is a concentrated form of milk Cheese is a concentrated form of milk Excellent source of protein Excellent source of protein Important sources of calcium and phosphorous Important sources of calcium and phosphorous Fair sources of thiamin and niacin Fair sources of thiamin and niacin

19 Kinds of Cheese Cheese – made from milk curds with the whey drained off Cheese – made from milk curds with the whey drained off Ripened Cheese (Aged Cheese) Ripened Cheese (Aged Cheese) Made from curds to which ripening agents have been added (mold, yeast, bacteria) Made from curds to which ripening agents have been added (mold, yeast, bacteria) Unripened Cheese Unripened Cheese Made from curds that have not been aged Made from curds that have not been aged

20 Process Cheese Natural cheeses can be made into process cheeses Natural cheeses can be made into process cheeses Pasteurized process cheese – made from a blend of ripened and unripened cheeses Pasteurized process cheese – made from a blend of ripened and unripened cheeses Cheeses are heated and emulsifiers added then end product is smooth and creamy Cheeses are heated and emulsifiers added then end product is smooth and creamy

21 Process Cheese Pasteurized process cheese food Pasteurized process cheese food Similar to pasteurized process cheese, but it contains more moisture and less fat Similar to pasteurized process cheese, but it contains more moisture and less fat Pasteurized Process Cheese Spread Pasteurized Process Cheese Spread Has a stabilizer added, contains less milkfat and more moisture than cheese food Has a stabilizer added, contains less milkfat and more moisture than cheese food Coldpack Cheese (club cheese) Coldpack Cheese (club cheese) Made from a mixture of unripened and aged cheeses blended without heat Made from a mixture of unripened and aged cheeses blended without heat

22 Process Cheese Coldpack Cheese Food Coldpack Cheese Food Similar to coldpack cheese but contains additional dairy products like cream, milk, fat free milk, or nonfat dry milk Similar to coldpack cheese but contains additional dairy products like cream, milk, fat free milk, or nonfat dry milk Imitation Cheese Imitation Cheese Has a large portion of the milkfat replaced by vegetable oils Has a large portion of the milkfat replaced by vegetable oils Cheese may differ in texture and melting characteristics from real cheese Cheese may differ in texture and melting characteristics from real cheese

23 Cost of Cheeses Save money by buying cheese in large pieces instead of sliced, cubed, shredded, or grated Save money by buying cheese in large pieces instead of sliced, cubed, shredded, or grated Fully ripened cheeses cost more than unripened cheeses Fully ripened cheeses cost more than unripened cheeses Pasteurized cheeses cost less than ripened Pasteurized cheeses cost less than ripened Plain cheese costs less than cheese with ingredients like nuts and herbs Plain cheese costs less than cheese with ingredients like nuts and herbs

24 Storing Cheese Cover or tightly wrap all cheese and refrigerate it Cover or tightly wrap all cheese and refrigerate it This prevents cheeses from drying out This prevents cheeses from drying out Prevents the spread of odors and flavors Prevents the spread of odors and flavors Cheese can become moldy if stored improperly Cheese can become moldy if stored improperly Small amounts of mold on hard cheeses is not harmful Small amounts of mold on hard cheeses is not harmful Cut off the mold within ½ inch of the mold Cut off the mold within ½ inch of the mold

25 Make the Lowfat Choice Dairy products contain a significant amount of fat Dairy products contain a significant amount of fat Choose reduced fat or fat free milk products Choose reduced fat or fat free milk products Portion Whole Milk/ Cream Product Lowfat/ Nonfat Product Grams of fat saved 1 cup Whole milk Fat free milk 8 ½ cup Ice cream Nonfat ice cream 6 or more 1 Tbsp Sour cream Plain, nonfat yogurt 3 1 oz Cheddar cheese Mozzarella4

26 Cooking with Milk and Cream White sauce, cream soups, puddings, and frozen desserts are popular milk-based foods White sauce, cream soups, puddings, and frozen desserts are popular milk-based foods Some of these foods may use cream instead of milk Some of these foods may use cream instead of milk Fresh milk, sour milk, evaporated milk, dried milk, and condensed milk are used in cooking and baking Fresh milk, sour milk, evaporated milk, dried milk, and condensed milk are used in cooking and baking Evaporated and dried milk may be used in place of fluid, fresh milk when you mix them with water Evaporated and dried milk may be used in place of fluid, fresh milk when you mix them with water Cannot substitute condensed milk for other milk products Cannot substitute condensed milk for other milk products

27 Cooking with Milk Forming a skin – protein solids clump together, forming a skin on the surface. The skin can trap steam causing the milk to bubble up and boil over Forming a skin – protein solids clump together, forming a skin on the surface. The skin can trap steam causing the milk to bubble up and boil over To prevent stir the mixture regularly To prevent stir the mixture regularly Boiling Over – when scum forms pressure builds up beneath the scum. The scum prevents the pressure from being released causing the milk to rise and boil over Boiling Over – when scum forms pressure builds up beneath the scum. The scum prevents the pressure from being released causing the milk to rise and boil over

28 Cooking with Milk Scorching – when milk solids fall to the bottom of the pan, they stick and burn. Scorching – when milk solids fall to the bottom of the pan, they stick and burn. To prevent stir the mixture constantly Curdling – when milk separates into curds and whey. May occur when milk is heated with acidic foods, salt, or high heat. Curdling – when milk separates into curds and whey. May occur when milk is heated with acidic foods, salt, or high heat. To prevent use low temperatures, stir the mixture, and combine milk with acidic foods gradually

29 Cooking with Milk Microwaving Milk – use lower settings, watch milk carefully, don’t fill container more than 2/3 full Microwaving Milk – use lower settings, watch milk carefully, don’t fill container more than 2/3 full Scalded Milk – milk that is heated to just below the boiling point Scalded Milk – milk that is heated to just below the boiling point

30 Whipping Properties of Cream Cream must contain at least 25% milkfat to whip successfully Cream must contain at least 25% milkfat to whip successfully 30% is needed for a stable product 30% is needed for a stable product Two changes happen while whipping cream Two changes happen while whipping cream Air bubbles are incorporated and foam forms Air bubbles are incorporated and foam forms Fat particles clump together Fat particles clump together If cream is overbeaten it will break If cream is overbeaten it will break Sugar decreases the volume and stiffness of whipped cream and increases whipping time Sugar decreases the volume and stiffness of whipped cream and increases whipping time

31 Preparing Whipping Cream For best results, chill bowl, beaters, and cream For best results, chill bowl, beaters, and cream Bowl should be big enough to hold cream after whipping Bowl should be big enough to hold cream after whipping Pour cream into bowl Pour cream into bowl beat on medium until thickening begins beat on medium until thickening begins Gradually add sugar and beat until cream is stiff Gradually add sugar and beat until cream is stiff Serve immediately Serve immediately


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