2 Geography of the fertile crescent Southwest AsiaDesert climate; between the Persian gulf and Mediterranean seaTigris and Euphrates rivers flow toward Persian gulfPlain in between them known as Mesopotamia “land between rivers”Scholars call it fertile crescentSilt left behind after flood (thick bed of mud; good soil for farming)
4 Environmental challenges and solutions Three disadvantages for the fertile crescent:Flooding was unpredictableOpen plain left them exposed to enemiesLimited resources (stone, wood, and metal)SolutionsIrrigation (ditches that carried water to their fields)City walls for defense (mud bricks)Trade for resources
5 Sumerians create city states City state – like an independent country,By 3000 B.C.E, Sumerians built several city-states (Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma and Ur)Ziggurat (temple) at each city-states center; priests asked for well being from godsPolytheistic beliefs (many gods)
6 Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings.
7 Political Roles (State Building) Earliest Sumerian government was controlled by priestsMilitary leaders at times became monarchs witch became dynastiesSeveral city states came under the rule of dynastiesTrade with the surrounding regions allowed cultural diffusion to take place (spreading one culture to another)Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the earliest works of literature in the world. A legendary king Gilgamesh had unsuccessful quest for immortality (common in ancient literature)
8 Sumerian CultureSocial classes emerged in Sumerian society -Priests and kings at the top -Wealthy merchants -Majority of Sumerians in fields and workshops -slaves (could earn freedom by working hard) Gender Roles -Sumerian women could pursue most city jobs; own property; become priestess
9 Sumerian Culture Continued… Sumerians developed first writing system – CuneiformLittle mention about female scribes (writers), suggests they couldn’t go to school, read or write.Still, women had more rights than in other civilizations
10 First Empire BuildersFrom 3000 to 2000 B.C.E, Sumerian city-states at frequent war with each otherThe Akkadians, under Sargon, took advantage of this and invaded SumerThe Akkadians kept many aspects of Sumerian culture and helped spread it within the regionSargon eventually created an empire (uniting several nations or previously independent states under one ruler)After 200 years, the Amorites invade and establish their capital at Babylon.King Hammurabi established his code of laws (232 specific laws; principle of retaliation; eye for an eye) p. 32
13 Geography of EgyptFor a long time, Egyptians lived isolated in the lower part of the NileEgyptians worshipped the Nile as a God due to its yearly floodingCataracts (rapids) did not allow boats to pass into the southern region of EgyptBut, prevailing winds allowed travel between upper and lower EgyptStill, deserts on both sides acted as natural barriers
14 Egypt Unites into a kingdom Menes – united all of EgyptEgyptian kings were gods, came to be called pharaohsPharaohs ruled both religion and government (Theocracy)Egyptians believed he bore the responsibility for the kingdoms prosperity
15 Religion and CultureEgyptians believed in an afterlife, also that they would be judged for their deeds when they died.All classes planned for their burials,Kings and queens built massive tombs, such as the pyramidsEgyptians preserved a dead person’s body by mummification (embalming and drying corpse to prevent from decaying)Items were placed in tombs… p 37Writing system known as hieroglyphics “sacred carving”, written on Papyrus
16 The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus The Edwin Smith Papyrus, the world's oldest surviving surgical text, was written in Egyptian hieratic script around the 17th century BCE, but probably based on material from a thousand years earlier. The papyrus is a textbook on trauma surgery, and describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous injuries in exquisite detail.
17 Planned Cities on the Indus River The First Indian civilization built well planned cities on the banks of the Indus River
18 Geography of South Asia Wall of mountains separates South Asia from rest of EurasiaHindu Kush, Karakoram, and HimalayasGeographers refer to the region as the Indian SubcontinentMountains rest along the Indus and Ganges riversFloods along the Indus were unpredictable, river changed course at timesPeople of Indus valley had to deal with wet and dry seasons brought upon by monsoons (seasonal winds)
19 Civilization on the Indus Historians have not deciphered the Indus system of writingMost evidence comes from artifacts, and digsMany scholars believe settlement began through migration by sea from Africa into southern India, and northern migration through Khyber PassAround 2500 B.C.E, settlements arose. The largest cities were Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and HarappaIndus referred to as Harappan civilization due to many discoveries thereCity planning (grid system) and plumbing, p. 43 ; citadels (fortified areas)Buildings made of oven-baked bricks cut in standard sizes
20 Culture and Trade Uniform housing (social divisions not great) Clay and wooden toys suggest prosperous society (nonessential goods)Few weapons found, (limited warfare?)Artifacts show links to modern Hindu culture (early rep of Shiva, major Indian God), fertility images, and the worship of cattleStamps and seals made of carved stone (long distance trade; some seals found in Sumer and vice versa)
21 Mysterious End to Indus Valley Culture Around 1750 B.C.E, quality of buildings declinedHistorians debate why the civilization declinedno more fertile lands as river changed courseOvergrazingNatural disaster or attack from enemies
22 River Dynasties in China Early rulers introduced idea about government and society that shaped Chinese civilization
23 Geography of ChinaChinas first civilization arose along the Huang He, “yellow river”The river deposited huge amounts of dusty yellowish silt (loess, or fertile soil)Floods could help or hurt early farmersChinas geographic isolation made farmers supply their own goods rather than rely on tradeStill not completely isolated; invasions from the west and south occurred repeatedly
24 Civilization in Shang Times Shang Dynasty, 1532 to 1027 B.C.E, first family of Chinese rulers to leave written recordsKings built elaborate palaces and tombsMost important city was Anyang (capital of Shang Dynasty)Elites lived in wood framed houses, clay and straw wallsPeasants lived in smaller houses
25 Chinese Culture Respect for ones parents most important Patriarchy Women treated as inferior (obey father, husband and later their sons)Bearing sons improved women's statusChinese believed spirits of ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster to familiesEvery family paid respect to the father’s ancestors and made sacrifices in their honor
26 Zhou Bring New Idea1027 B.C.E, Zhou overthrew the Shang and established their dynastyMuch of the culture remained with a few changesMandate of Heaven – justified the overthrow of the shang (and later dynasties), bad rulers lost divine approval p. 50Dynastic cycle describes the pattern of the rise, decline and fall of dynastiesZhou introduced Feudalism to control their lands (political system which lords or nobles are given land that belong to the king in return for loyalty and / or military service (much like Japan and Europe)
27 Decline of the ZhouGradually, lords grew stronger and towns grew into citiesLocal lords became less dependent on the Zhou rulerLocal lords began to fight with one another for more territoryThe later years of Zhou rule are called “warring states era”It would take a new dynasty, the Qin dynasty, 3rd century B.C.E, to restore stability to china
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