Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia and Sumer Main Idea: The first known civilization arose in Mesopotamia, and its culture and innovations influenced later civilizations in the."— Presentation transcript:
Mesopotamia and Sumer Main Idea: The first known civilization arose in Mesopotamia, and its culture and innovations influenced later civilizations in the region for thousands of years.
Key Terms and People Fertile Crescent – region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf Mesopotamia - Fertile Crescent area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (means “between the rivers” in Greek)
Key Terms and People Ziggurat - pyramid-shaped temple dedicated to a Sumerian city’s chief god City-state - a political unit with its own government made of a city and its lands Polytheism - the worship of many gods Dynasty - a series of rulers from one family Cuneiform - Sumerian writing, first known system of writing
Key Terms and People Sargon - Akkadian ruler who was the first to create a permanent army Hammurabi - King of Babylon famous for his code of laws www.biography.com www.philadelphia- reflections.com
Reading Focus How did geography promote civilization in Mesopotamia? Flat swampy region was well suited for agriculture Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates rivers left behind fertile soil, led to more food, which led to more people. Water from rivers needed to be controlled through canals and dikes. Large projects like these required an organizational structure to emerge.
Reading Focus What features defined the civilization of Sumer? Sumerian cities were built mostly of mud bricks, with walls for defense and ziggurat at the heart of the city Sumerians practiced polytheism, they believed gods controlled all natural forces, protected their city, and were like humans in many ways. They worked hard to please the gods. Priests held high status, but as city-states battled war chiefs gained more power eventually ruled as kings forming dynasties.
Reading Focus What were Sumer’s main cultural achievements? Writing – cuneiform was first used to keep business accounts, later they wrote works on law, grammar, and literature. Epic of Gilgamesh, is the best know Sumerian writing, is the story of a legendary king. Math & Science – developed a math system based on number 60, used geography, invented the wheel & plow. They also used bronze to make better tools and weapons. The Arts – Carved statues with large, wide-opened eyes, small objects made of ivory. Small stone cylinders engraved all around with detailed designs would be rolled over wet clay leaving behind an imprint. Trade and Society – Traded with other people from SW Asia to obtain materials they need. Developed a social hierarchy with Kings & Priests at the top, followed by large landowners and merchants, then artists, farmers and laborers, finally slaves.
Reading Focus What events led to later empires in Mesopotamia? City-states were wakened by constant warfare with each other Invaders then one by one conquered the region Invaders adapted many aspects of Sumerian culture to their own societies.
Sargon’s Empire The worlds first empire c. 2330 BC From the city of Akkad, Sargon I was the first ruler to create a permanent army, used the army to conquer all of Sumer and Northern Mesopotamia. Adopted cuneiform to write their language. Spread Sumerian culture beyond Mesopotamia Sargon’s Empire only lasted 140 years, Invaders from the East invaded and captured Akkad
Babylonian Empire Amorite Tribe that settled in Babylon on the Euphrates River were able to unite all of Mesopotamia 1792 BC, Hammurabi became king of Babylon Hammurabi was a brilliant warrior, able ruler and administrator. Hammurabi’s Law Code – written law code that contained 282 laws dealing with everything from trade and theft to injury and murder After the death of Hammurabi Babylon’s power declined. Hittite and other invaders eventually conquered Babylon