Presentation on theme: "2 Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
1 2 Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. QUIT2CHAPTEREarly River ValleyCivilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C.Chapter OverviewTime LineMAPSECTION1City-States in MesopotamiaSECTION2Pyramids on the NileSECTION3Planned Cities on the IndusSECTION4River Dynasties in ChinaVisual Summary
2 2 Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. HOME2CHAPTEREarly River ValleyCivilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C.Chapter OverviewThe river valley civilizations develop from small farming villages. The civilizations create laws, centralized governments, writing systems, and advanced technologies. The process of trade spreads new ideas to and from these civilizations.
3 2 Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. HOME Time Line CHAPTEREarly River ValleyCivilizations, 3500 B.C.–450 B.C.Time Line3000 B.C. City-states form in Sumer, Mesopotamia.1792 B.C. Hammurabi develops code of laws for Babylonian Empire.1027 B.C. Zhou dynasty forms in China.3500 B.C.450 B.C.2660 B.C. Egypt’s Old Kingdom develops.1550 B.C. Indus Valley civilization declines.
4 City-States in Mesopotamia Key Idea 1 HOME1City-States inMesopotamiaMAPKey IdeaWorking together to overcome environmental challenges leads to the development of centralized government and cities in Mesopotamia. The Sumerian civilization influences later civilizations.OverviewAssessment
5 City-States in Mesopotamia Overview 1 • Fertile Crescent • silt HOME1City-States inMesopotamiaMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• Fertile Crescent• silt• irrigation• city-state• dynasty• cultural diffusion• polytheism• empire• HammurabiMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe development of this civilization reflects a pattern that has occurred repeatedly throughout history.The earliest civilization in Asia arose in Mesopotamia and organized into city-states.Assessment
6 unpredictable flooding HOME1City-States inMesopotamiaMAPSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List three environmental challenges the Sumerians faced and their solutions to these challenges.ChallengesSolutionunpredictable floodingirrigationdefenselessnesswalled citieslimited resourcestradecontinued . . .
7 City-States in Mesopotamia 1 1 HOME1City-States inMesopotamiaMAPSection1Assessment2. What advantages did living in cities offer the people of ancient Mesopotamia? Do modern cities offer any of the same advantages? THINK ABOUT• characteristics of Sumer’s city-states• characteristics of Sumer’s economy and society• development of organized governmentANSWERPossible Responses:Opportunity for wealth; diversity of work available; government that promotes laws, manages economy, and provides assistance; better housing; city walls and armies for protection; proximity to temple; more social contact. Cities today offer many of these advantages.continued . . .
8 City-States in Mesopotamia 1 1 HOME1City-States inMesopotamiaMAPSection1Assessment3. Do you think that living in a river valley with little rainfall helped or hurt the development of civilization in Mesopotamia? Explain your response.ANSWERPossible Response:It helped, because the Sumerians had to develop the technology and organization to get water to the fields. This led to the development of organized government.End of Section 1
9 Pyramids on the Nile Key Idea 2 HOME2Pyramids on the NileKey IdeaEgyptian civilization develops along the Nile River. Upper and lower Egypt are united into a kingdom and ruled by pharaohs, who are believed to be gods. Egyptian customs for preparing and burying the bodies of the dead include mummification and burying pharaohs in pyramids.OverviewAssessment
10 Pyramids on the Nile Overview 2 • cataract • delta • Menes • pharaoh HOME2Pyramids on the NileTERMS & NAMESOverview• cataract• delta• Menes• pharaoh• theocracy• pyramid• mummification• hieroglyphics• papyrusMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAlong the Nile River, civilization emerged in Egypt and became united into a kingdom ruled by pharaohs.Many of the monuments built by the Egyptians stand as a testament to their ancient civilization.Assessment
11 Egyptian Achievements HOME2Pyramids on the NileSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Give four examples of Egyptian achievements.Egyptian AchievementsMummificationPyramidsHieroglyphicsAdvances in medicineWritten numbersCalendarcontinued . . .
12 HOME2Pyramids on the NileSection2Assessment2. Three natural features determined the boundaries of ancient Egyptian civilization: the Nile River, the First Cataract, and the surrounding desert. In your judgment, which of these features was most important to Egypt’s history?ANSWERPossible Responses:The Nile River—it provided fertile soil, a predictable growing season, and easy transportation within Egypt.The First Cataract—it presented an obstacle to trade and communication with peoples on the upper Nile.The deserts—they limited outside contact but also prevented invasions.End of Section 2
13 Planned Cities on the Indus Key Idea 3 HOME3Planned Citieson the IndusKey IdeaThe Indus Valley people build planned cities with sophisticated sewage and plumbing systems. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus civilization is stable and prosperous. Indus Valley culture ends mysteriously.OverviewAssessment
14 Planned Cities on the Indus Overview 3 • subcontinent • monsoon HOME3Planned Citieson the IndusTERMS & NAMESOverview• subcontinent• monsoonMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe first Indian civilization built well-planned cities on the banks of the Indus River.The culture of India today has its roots in the civilization of the early Indus cities.Assessment
15 Planned Cities on the Indus 3 3 HOME3Planned Citieson the IndusSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the environmental conditions faced by the people of the Indus Valley. For each one, explain whether the condition was a benefit or a drawback.Environmental ConditionBenefit or Drawback(-) too little rain(-) too much rainmonsoons(+) spread deposits of rich soil over wide area(-) unpredictablefloodshigh mountains(+) natural barrier helped protect against invasionlarge desert(+) natural barrier helped protect against invasioncontinued . . .
16 Planned Cities on the Indus 3 3 HOME3Planned Citieson the IndusSection3Assessment2. What evidence has led historians to the following beliefs about Indus civilization?(a) The cities were run by a strong central government.(b) Indus people carried on trade with Sumer.(c) Society was generally peaceful and stable.ANSWER(a) Planned cities, uniform buildings, sanitation systems(b) Indus seals found in Mesopotamia(c) Uniform housing, children’s toys, few weaponsEnd of Section 3
17 River Dynasties in China Key Idea 4 HOME4River Dynastiesin ChinaKey IdeaAncient Chinese civilization is ruled by powerful family dynasties. Just rulers are believed to have divine approval. In Chinese culture, family is central to society and religion. Improvements are made in technology and trade. Feudalism is established.OverviewAssessment
18 River Dynasties in China Overview 4 • loess • oracle bone HOME4River Dynastiesin ChinaTERMS & NAMESOverview• loess• oracle bone• Mandate of Heaven• dynastic cycle• feudalismMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe early rulers introduced ideas about government and society that shaped Chinese civilization.The culture that took root during ancient times still affects Chinese ways of life today.Assessment
19 River Dynasties in China 4 4 HOME4River Dynastiesin ChinaSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major developments in the early Chinese dynasties.Event OneEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent TwoEvent FourXia is the first Chinese dynasty.Shang develop writing.Zhou are first to control by feudalism.Shang develop first cities.Zhou claim Mandate of Heaven.continued . . .
20 River Dynasties in China 4 4 HOME4River Dynastiesin ChinaSection4Assessment2. The group was often more important than the individual in Chinese culture. In your judgment, what are the benefits and drawbacks of this belief? THINK ABOUT• family roles• the characteristics of a ruler• role of spirit godsANSWERPossible Responses:Benefits—family cares for elderly, less government money spent on social programs, respect for deceased family members/godsDrawbacks—less time for individuals to pursue interests, difficult to break away when family or ruler is unjustcontinued . . .
21 River Dynasties in China 4 4 HOME4River Dynastiesin ChinaSection4Assessment3. Do you think that the Zhou Dynasty’s downfall resulted because of their method of control? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• feudalism• the large division of rich and poor• the vast controlled lands• the noble-king relationshipANSWERPossible Responses:Yes—great distance between ruler and ruled, lords were greedy, chaotic warfareNo—the Zhou ruled successfully for 300 years. Their downfall wasn’t because of feudalism but because invaders killed the backbone of the dynasty, the Zhou monarchy.End of Section 4