Presentation on theme: "Fertile Crescent Empires"— Presentation transcript:
1Fertile Crescent Empires PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusThe HittitesMaps: Conquering the Fertile CrescentThe Assyrians and the ChaldeansFaces of History: Nebuchadnezzar IIThe PhoeniciansMap: Phoenician TradeQuick Facts: Alphabet
2Fertile Crescent Empires Main IdeaIndo-European invaders introduced new technologies to the Fertile Crescent while adapting earlier technologies developed by the civilizations they encountered there.Reading FocusWhat military advantages helped the Hittites establish an empire in Asia Minor?What events led to the rise and fall of the Assyrian and Chaldean empires?What were the main achievements of the Phoenicians?
3The Hittites Decline of Babylonian Empire Nomadic tribes moved into the region, drawn by wealthIncluded Indo-EuropeansSteppes: arid grasslands north of the Black SeaHittite Military MightHittites: warlike Indo-European tribeBuilt strong empire in Asia Minor (now Turkey)Horse-drawn war chariot and new techniquesHittite CultureBlended their culture with cultures around themFirst to make objects out of ironRule reached peak in 1300s BC
5How were the Hittites able to build an empire in Asia Minor? SummarizeHow were the Hittites able to build an empire in Asia Minor?Answer(s): With their military advantages, they were able to conquer people in surrounding areas.
6The Assyrians and the Chaldeans After the Hittite empire fell, other peoples fought for dominance in western Asia. In time, the Assyrians became the supreme power in the region; later the Chaldeans formed their own empire.From Northern MesopotamiaBarley, cattleAdopted Sumerian cultureNew empire in 900 BCMesopotamia, Asia Minor, EgyptThe AssyriansFierce warrior societyWar chariots, foot soldiers, cavalryMasters of siege warfareTerrorWar MachineEfficient systemLocal leadersSystem of roadsBrutal with oppositionCultural achievements, libraryAssyrian Rule
7The Chaldeans As Assyria began to decline, the Chaldeans swooped in. Babylon, capital of their new empireNebuchadnezzar IIWarrior and builderHanging Gardens of BabylonChaldean cultureAdmired ancient Sumerian cultureDeveloped calendar; advances in astronomy
9Compare and ContrastHow were the Hittite, Assyrian, and Chaldean empires similar and different?Answer(s): All made cultural and technological advances. Hittites—known for military power, efficient government; Chaldeans—developed calendar, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, short-lived empire; Phoenicians—not an empire, built wealthy trading society, developed alphabet.
10The PhoeniciansIn an area of western Asia called Phoenicia, city-states emerged as trading centers, and Phoenicians built a wealthy trading society.Western end of Fertile CrescentFarming difficultTrade and sea for livelihoodExpert sailorsFounded colonies on routesTrade brought great wealthInvented glassblowingExports: ivory, silver, slavesTrading SocietyGreatest achievementInvented by traders to record activitiesAdopted by many, including the GreeksAncestor of the English language alphabetAlphabet