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Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East

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1 Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East
World History Chapter 3 Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East

2 Chapter 3, Section 1 Civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt trade and spread cultural influences throughout the region

3 Setting the Scene Terms to Define: confederation, alphabet, colony, barter People to Meet: the Aramaeans, the Phoenicians, the Lydians, Places to Locate: Syria, Damascus, Tyre

4 The Aramaeans Highly active in Middle East trade
Settled in Central Syria, 1200 B.C. Capital at Damascus Controlled trade route, Mesopotamia to Egypt People in region spoke Aramaic, language of Aramaeans

5 The Aramaeans Until A.D. 800s, most people in Fertile Crescent spoke Aramaic Parts of Bible written in Aramaic

6 The Phoenicians Originally from Arabian Peninsula
Settled in north Canaan Neighbors were Philistines Canaan was later called Palestine by the Greeks They sailed the seas for a living

7 The Phoenicians Harvested timber from nearby forests to build strong ships Built a string of towns and cities along the coast Many grew to city-states—most significant was Tyre Loose union of city-states forming a confederation.

8 The Phoenicians Sailed from their coast city-states throughout the Mediterranean Expert navigators using stars and sun Reached southern coast of Spain and possibly England Took charge of Mediterranean shipping and trade

9 The Phoenicians Had advantage over business competitors because they had improved t alphabet Phoenician system became foundation of several alphabets including Greek Set up temporary colonies along the Mediterranean coasts The colony of Carthage became the most powerful in the Mediterranean

10 The Lydians Lydians lived in Asia Minor Developed wealthy kingdom
Neighboring cultures relied on system of trade called barter—exchanging their wares for other goods Lydians established money system, using coins as a medium of exchange The concept of money soon spread

11 Early Israelites Chapter 3, Section 2
The Israelites were an exception among the polytheistic cultures of the ancient world. They were monotheistic, or believed in one all-powerful God. They called him Yahweh. The teachings of the Israelites influenced Christianity and Islam Early Israelites Chapter 3, Section 2

12 The Land of Canaan The Bible traces the origins of the Israelites to Abraham Herder and trader Lived in Ur in Mesopotamia Believed God made covenant with Abraham Would build a great nation around him if he remained faithful to God

13 The Land of Canaan Descendents of Abraham shared land with Phoenicians and Philistines Rocky hills and deserts Fertile plains and grassy slopes Many lived as nomad herding sheep and goats

14 The Exodus From Egypt Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, raised 12 sons and each son led a separate family group The 12 tribes of Israel Severe drought forced migration to Egypt They lived peacefully for several generations until the Egyptians decided to enslave them

15 The Exodus From Egypt In 1200s B.C., Moses led people from Egypt
Exodus into Sinai Desert During Passover, Exodus story is retold God renewed the covenant with Moses Israelites ledged to reject all gods Received Ten Commandments God promised them safe return to Canaan

16 Settling the Land Moses died before reaching Canaan
Joshua led Israelites into Canaan For 200 years, the Israelites fought the Philistines and Canaanites who now occupied the land

17 The Davidic Monarchy Israelites united under one king—Saul
Unable to defeat the Philistines, David became king David had once defeated Goliath David ruled for next 40 years King David set up capital in Jerusalem Israelites enjoyed prosperity under David

18 The Davidic Monarchy David’s son Solomon succeeded his father
Founded new cities and constructed magnificent temple in Jerusalem Israelites resented Solomon’s high taxes Ten tribes broke away from the other two Two in the north broke away from southern tribes Ten in the south kept the name of Judah as a kingdom and kept Jerusalem as the capital “Jew” comes from the term Judah

19 Exile and Return Politically split, tribes kept same religion
Too weak to resist invasions In 722 B.C., the Assyrians of Mesopotamia conquered the 10 tribes IN 586 B.C., the Chaldeans of Mesopotamia gained control of Judah and destroyed the temple

20 Exile in Babylon During the difficult period, prophets arose from the Israelites Some like Jeremiah blamed the Jews for leaving God Without a temple, Jews met in small groups—the rise of synagogues came from these gatherings

21 Rebuilding Jerusalem In 539 B.C., the Persian conquered the Chaldeans
Persian king Cyrus II allowed the Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the temple First five books of Bible were placed in Torah Some Jews remained in Babylon and and other went to other regions—the Diaspora—Greek word for scattered

22 Lasting Legacy Jews saw God-directed purpose and continued to record their history Torah recorded concept that humans were made in the image of God People were accountable for what happens in the world

23 Empire Builders Chapter 3, Section 3
Warlike neighbors came to rule the Fertile Crescent Empire Builders Chapter 3, Section 3

24 Setting the Scene Terms to Define: satrap
People to Meet: the Hittites, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, Nebuchadnezzar, the Persians, Cyrus II, Darius I, Zoroaster Places to Locate: anatolia, Babylon, Nineveh, Persepolis

25 The Hittites Presumably from areas beyond the Black Sea, conquered Asia Minor 2000 B.C. Established city-states in central plain called Anatolia Custom of wearing hair in long, black pigtail First to Wield iron weapons

26 The Hittites Two soldiers on a chariot—fast, light, mobile, strong
Conquered Babylon about 1595 B.C. Established less harsh legal system than Hammurabi

27 The Assyrians Subject of constant attacks to their home in north Mesopotamia Built strong force and starting attacking others Most lethal fighting force in Middle East Chariots, cavalry, foot soldiers Used iron weapons and battering rams to knock down wall of foes

28 The Assyrians Treated conquered people cruelly Burned cities
Tortured and killed thousands Deported people to other parts of their kingdom Resettled other people into conquered territories

29 The Assyrians By 650, Assyrians governed empire from Persian Gulf to Asia minor Established capital in Nineveh, along Tigris River Alliance between Chaldeans and Medes brought down the Assyrian empire

30 The Chaldeans Descended from Hammurabi’s Babylonian empire
Height of empire was during reign of King Nebuchadnezzar Conquered Canaan and Syria Built Babylon into beautiful city

31 The Chaldeans Among seven wonders of the world, Hanging Gardens of Babylon Made for the king’s wife Walls 50 feet high around the city Study of stars laid foundations of study in Astronomy Persians under Cyrus II conquered them

32 The Persians From central Asia, leaving about 2000 B.C
Settle between Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea Between Cyrus and his son, Cambyses, they brought all of the Middle East under Persian control

33 The Persians Darius I was best organizer Reigned 522 B.C. to 486 B.C.
Divided the realm into provinces—satraps—provincial governors Military officials and tax collector chosen from the conquered people Inspectors made tours—”eyes of the king” Believed in loyalty over fear

34 The Persians Persian did not participate in trade—their conquered people could Expanded network of roads for trade Royal road stretched more than 1500 miles across Persian Empire Stations every 14 miles

35 The Persians Darius waged war against the Greeks
After Darius death, his son Xerxes led disastrous campaign against Greeks in Greece in 480 B.C., crippling the Persian empire (partly against the “300”)

36 The Persians Followed strict code of bravery and honesty
Taught riding, use of the bow and speaking the truth Worshiped many deities Prophet, Zoroaster, began speaking of a world divided into good and evil

37 The Persians Zoroaster Persian kings led by good god, Ahura Mazda
Humans caught up in the struggle Humans must choose Eternal life was the reward Written in book called Avesta Persian kings led by good god, Ahura Mazda

38 The Persians Zoroaster’s teachings linked to glorification of Persian monarchy Zoroaster’s teachings on paradise, hell, and Last Judgment may have influenced other religions Persians mixed with Greek culture when Alexander the Great absorbed them

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