Presentation on theme: "Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity. Explore and identify the chief contributions."— Presentation transcript:
Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity. Explore and identify the chief contributions and characteristics of the Babylonians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, and Persians. Identify the following people: Sargon, Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar II, Ahura Mazda, Cyrus the Great, and Darius.
3000 BC 2340 – 2100 BC BC900 BC – 600 BC SumerAkkadBabylonAssyria 600 – 539 BC Chaldean BabylonPersia 559 – 330 BC How many civilizations controlled the Mesopotamian region?
All speak a Semitic language. Arable land near the Tigris/Euphrates rivers was managed with irrigation systems. No natural barriers – prone to invaders. Theocratic – kings rule as divine leaders. Map of the Region
Sargon – Powerful monarch (king) who led the Akkadians. 1 st to establish an empire. That lasted 240 years. Empire – a large territory or group of cities under a single leader or government. Copper Statue mask of Sargon.
Babylon was the center of culture and trade. People relied on a barter economy in order to exchange goods. The civilizations in this region were polytheistic. Cultural Diffusion - when a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another.
1.What type of language was spoken in Babylon? 2.What impact did the lack of natural barriers have on this region? 3.Who was the 1 st leader to establish an empire? 4.Which city was the most cosmopolitan? 5.Were the people in this region monotheistic, or polytheistic?
Ruled a strong Babylonian Empire. He established the 1 st code of laws called the “Code of Hammurabi.” He built temples, encouraged trade, and revived Babylon’s economy.
Hammurabi defeated many armies, and was known as the “Sun of Babylon.” He led the “Man of War” army. These soldiers carried axes, spears, and daggers made of copper or bronze.
His most important contribution – the 1 st code of laws. Hammurabi’s laws were carved on stones, and placed in the center of all Babylonian cities. The laws were the same for all cities he ruled. King Hammurabi receiving the code.
Strict justice system and consumer protection laws. Severe penalties for breaking the law. Hammurabis’ Court
Retaliation was key. An “Eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” If a Judge ruled poorly, he paid a fine and lost his position. This woman was one of the Chief judges under Nebuchadnezzar II.
The Assyrian “kings” took the title of “Stewards of the Gods.”
War-like kings of Assyria took over the region around 700 BC. King Ashurbanipal left, and the Lion hunting relief to the right. Wikipedia Commons
By 650 BC, the Assyrians had defeated Syria, Palestine, Babylon, Egypt and Anatolia. They established an empire that lasted about 300 years. Map showing the extent of the Assyrian Empire. Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.
The army and its kings were infamous. King Sennacherib was recorded to have sacked 89 cities, and 820 villages. He burned Babylon and killed most of the city’s people. King Sennacherib laying siege to the city of Lacdhish in Palestine.
“3,000 of their troops, I felled with weapons…I cut off their hands to the wrist, I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out their eyes, and burned their young men and women to death.” - King Ashurbanipal King Ashurbanipal lays siege to a city.
Army was well-organized and efficient. Infantry, cavalry and horse drawn chariots gave the Assyrians complete power in the region. 1 st equipped with iron swords, spears and shields. The Assyrian army laid siege to this city by crossing a river using inflated animal skins.
Great Military Engineers - 1 st to use catapults and siege weapons. Infamous for their cruelty. Smashed dams, looted towns, posted the heads of their enemies on stakes on the tops of city walls.
The Assyrian kings built extravagant palaces. Established the first library at Nineveh. Started the 1 st postal network with horse men to relay messages. Assyrian King Ashurbanipal above, built the great library at Nineveh. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.
1.What were Hammurabi’s laws called? 2.How would you describe these laws? 3.What was Hammurabi’s army nicknamed? 4.How would you describe the Assyrian kings? 5.Which civilization is best known for the cruelty of its army?
King Nebuchadnezzar II, re-built Babylon and made it the center of his empire. Nebuchadnezzar is best remembered for his building of the Hanging Gardens and the Babylonian Captivity.
1 of 8 Gates built by King Nebuchadnezzar II. Dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, this inner gate was the processional entrance into Babylon. The Ishtar Gate
In 597 BC, Israel fell to Nebuchadnezzar. Solomon’s temple was sacked and the Jews were enslaved and taken to Babylon. They remained enslaved until 539. This was called the Babylonian Captivity. Jews taken captive back to Babylon.
The Persians arose from a mountain tribe in S. Iran. Within a single generation, they were established as the #1 power in the world. They were known for their spectacular military success, their wealth and invincibility.
The Khorasan Highway – or the King’s Highway allowed the Persians to create the 1 st multi-cultural empire in the world. The Persians were tolerant rulers, but each citizen was a subject of the king.
Cyrus the Great was an Indo European and Persian. (Iran) He liberated the Jews and allowed them to return home. He created a powerful Persian empire in 559 BC, that lasted until Alexander’s conquest in 330 BC. Cyrus the Great
Persian Kings had absolute power. Divided empire into 20 satraps or provinces ruled by a governor. Collected taxes, provided justice and security. Recruited soldiers for the king’s army. Painting of Baghdad.
Darius’ Army – 10,000 men in the Cavalry. Elite Infantry of 10,000 men called the “Immortals.” (Their numbers were never allowed to drop below 10,000).
The religion that developed in Persia was Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism – monotheistic religion. Believed in Ahura Mazda, the “Wise lord," and divine judgment.
In 330 BC, Alexander the Great will defeat the Persian King, Darius. Key Battles – Issus Granicus, and Gaugamela. Alexander will go on to conquer the known world. Alexander the Great
1.What kind of power did Persian kings have? 2.What nickname was given to Darius’ infantry? 3.What religion developed in Persia? 4.Who will finally defeat the Persians?