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Babylon, Assyria and Persia.

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1 Babylon, Assyria and Persia

2 Learning Objectives Learning Objectives
Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity. Explore and identify the chief contributions and characteristics of the Babylonians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, and Persians. Identify the following people: Sargon, Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar II, Ahura Mazda, Cyrus the Great, and Darius.

3 How many civilizations controlled the Mesopotamian region?
Timeline - Mesopotamia Timeline - Mesopotamia Sumer Akkad Babylon Assyria Chaldean Babylon Persia 3000 BC 2340 – 2100 BC BC 900 BC – 600 BC 600 – 539 BC 559 – 330 BC How many civilizations controlled the Mesopotamian region?

4 Mesopotamian Cultures Mesopotamian Cultures
All speak a Semitic language. Arable land near the Tigris/Euphrates rivers was managed with irrigation systems. No natural barriers – prone to invaders. Theocratic – kings rule as divine leaders. Map of the Region

5 Copper Statue mask of Sargon.
The Akkadians and Sargon The Akkadians and Sargon Sargon – Powerful monarch (king) who led the Akkadians. 1st to establish an empire. That lasted 240 years. Empire – a large territory or group of cities under a single leader or government. Copper Statue mask of Sargon.

6 The Babylonians The Babylonians
Babylon was the center of culture and trade. People relied on a barter economy in order to exchange goods. The civilizations in this region were polytheistic. Cultural Diffusion - when a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another.

7 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding
What type of language was spoken in Babylon? What impact did the lack of natural barriers have on this region? Who was the 1st leader to establish an empire? Which city was the most cosmopolitan? Were the people in this region monotheistic, or polytheistic?

8 King Hammurabi King Hammurabi Ruled a strong Babylonian Empire.
He established the 1st code of laws called the “Code of Hammurabi.” He built temples, encouraged trade, and revived Babylon’s economy.

9 Hammurabi defeated many armies, and was known as the “Sun of Babylon.”
He led the “Man of War” army. These soldiers carried axes, spears, and daggers made of copper or bronze.

10 King Hammurabi receiving the code.
The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi His most important contribution – the 1st code of laws. Hammurabi’s laws were carved on stones, and placed in the center of all Babylonian cities. The laws were the same for all cities he ruled. The code of Hammurabi is engraved on the black basalt of this stele, which is 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in) high and was made in the first half of the 18th century BC. The top portion shown here depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. King Hammurabi receiving the code.

11 The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi
Clip 831 -The code of Hammurabi is engraved on the black basalt of this stele, which is 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in) high and was made in the first half of the 18th century BC. The top portion shown here depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law.

12 The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi
Strict justice system and consumer protection laws. Severe penalties for breaking the law. If judges ruled poorly – they lost their jobs or paid a fine. If officials (police), failed to catch burglars or murderers, they answered to the victim’s family. The Code even contained laws on marriage and the family. Patriarchal society- society dominated by men. Lineage and rights pass through the male. The Code favored the legal rights of men. Men could divorce for a variety of reasons. Women were to care for children and the household. Children were to be obedient to their parents. Men could divorce their wife if she could not have children, or failed in her duties….or tried to start a business! She could be drowned if she neglected her house and humiliated her husband. As for children, one of the laws stated that if a son struck his father, he was to have his hand cut off. Hammurabis’ Court

13 This woman was one of the Chief judges under Nebuchadnezzar II.
The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi Retaliation was key. An “Eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” If a Judge ruled poorly, he paid a fine and lost his position. If judges ruled poorly – they lost their jobs or paid a fine. If officials (police), failed to catch burglars or murderers, they answered to the victim’s family. The Code even contained laws on marriage and the family. Patriarchal society- society dominated by men. Lineage and rights pass through the male. The Code favored the legal rights of men. Men could divorce for a variety of reasons. Women were to care for children and the household. Children were to be obedient to their parents. Men could divorce their wife if she could not have children, or failed in her duties….or tried to start a business! She could be drowned if she neglected her house and humiliated her husband. As for children, one of the laws stated that if a son struck his father, he was to have his hand cut off. This woman was one of the Chief judges under Nebuchadnezzar II.

14 The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria
Clip 833

15 The Assyrian “kings” took the title of “Stewards of the Gods.”
The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria Assyrian king flanked by two winged deities, who are anointing him with sacred cones. In the early years of the Assyrian nation the ruler did not presume to adopt the title of kings: instead they called themselves the equivalent of stewards of gods. After Assyria became a major power, its kings maintained this religious attachment. The Assyrian “kings” took the title of “Stewards of the Gods.”

16 War-like kings of Assyria took over the region around 700 BC.
The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria Ashurbanipal kills a wounded lion with his sword. This relief panel and the others of the “lion Hunt” series display the best features of Assyrian airt : naturalistic detail potent subjects, and dramatic themes. From Lion Hunt relief, ca. 645 B.C., originally in the place of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh King Ashurbanipal left, and the Lion hunting relief to the right. Wikipedia Commons War-like kings of Assyria took over the region around 700 BC.

17 The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria
By 650 BC, the Assyrians had defeated Syria, Palestine, Babylon, Egypt and Anatolia. They established an empire that lasted about 300 years. Map showing the extent of the Assyrian Empire. Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

18 King Sennacherib laying siege to the city of Lacdhish in Palestine.
The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria The army and its kings were infamous. King Sennacherib was recorded to have sacked 89 cities, and 820 villages. He burned Babylon and killed most of the city’s people. Sennacherib II, King of the Asssyrians, lays siege to Lacdhish, a fortress city of ancient Judah in Palestine. Sennacherib, son of Sargon II, ruled Assyria from 705 to 681 B.C. He defeated the Egyptians in 701 B.C. and also exacted a heavy tribute from Jerusalem, then the capital of the Hebrew kingdom of Judah. Sennacherib II laid siege to and destroyed the city of Babylon in Mesopotamia about 689 B.C. Sennacherib II chose Nineveh as the site of his capital, and he erected a palace at Koyunjik. He was murdered in a palace coup. King Sennacherib laying siege to the city of Lacdhish in Palestine.

19 King Ashurbanipal lays siege to a city.
The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria “3,000 of their troops, I felled with weapons…I cut off their hands to the wrist, I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out their eyes, and burned their young men and women to death.” - King Ashurbanipal King Ashurbanipal lays siege to a city.

20 The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria
Army was well-organized and efficient. Infantry, cavalry and horse drawn chariots gave the Assyrians complete power in the region. 1st equipped with iron swords, spears and shields. Clothing – wore copper and iron helmets, padded loincloths, leather skirts with metal scales. Weapons – iron swords, pointed spears and large shields. The infantry stood shoulder to shoulder. Assyrian siege warfare. The Assyrian military genius was most apparent when the Assyrian laid siege to a fortified place. Their armies excelled in the art of siege warfare, and they put their specialized knowledge into pracitce with ruthless efficiency. This relief of a siege depicts Assyrians crossing a moat or river using inflated anmial skins as flotation devices. The Assyrians also used ladder to storm battlements, and excavation to undermine walls. They build earthen ramps to put their soldier over walls. They built earthen ramps to put their soldier over the walls, and they used battering rams to splinter gates. The Assyrian army laid siege to this city by crossing a river using inflated animal skins.

21 The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria
Great Military Engineers - 1st to use catapults and siege weapons. Infamous for their cruelty. Smashed dams, looted towns, posted the heads of their enemies on stakes on the tops of city walls. Built pontoon bridges of animal skins, they used sappers to sap or undermine the foundations of enemy’s walls to weaken them. They used to lay siege to a city with a well-disciplined military machine. They battered down the walls with iron tipped battering rams.

22 The Lion Kings of Assyria The Lion Kings of Assyria
The Assyrian kings built extravagant palaces. Established the first library at Nineveh. Started the 1st postal network with horse men to relay messages. Ninevah was a walled city – 3 miles long. King Ashurbanipal – great king built a huge library at Nineveh – it contained 25,000 clay tablets. The library was unearthed in the 1800’s. It had dictionaries that contained the same words in different languages which helped them better to understand Mesopotamian languages. King Ashurbanipal proved to be one of the last great Assyrian kings. The picture above is Assyrian lamassuhttp://truthchasers.com/assyria.htm These winged bulls were placed at the entrance of Assyrian palaces to "guard" the entrance from evil. This one was excavated from the palace at Khorsabad. Assyrian King Ashurbanipal above, built the great library at Nineveh. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

23 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding
What were Hammurabi’s laws called? How would you describe these laws? What was Hammurabi’s army nicknamed? How would you describe the Assyrian kings? Which civilization is best known for the cruelty of its army?

24 Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II
King Nebuchadnezzar II, re-built Babylon and made it the center of his empire. Nebuchadnezzar is best remembered for his building of the Hanging Gardens and the Babylonian Captivity. The combined army of the Medes (in the North) and the Chaldeans (in the south), destroyed the city of Ninevah in 612 BC. The combined forces burned and leveled the city. Fire glazed the tablets but little else survived. Wise men= psychics Magicians = casters of spells, witches  Astrologers = Foretelling future by star charts, fortune tellers Sorcerers = Claim to communicate with the dead. Spiritualists Chadeans = Philosophers of psychic divination, numerology etc.

25 Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II
820

26 The Hanging Gardens The Hanging Gardens
King Nebuchadnezzar II supposedly built these gardens for his favorite wife Amytis, who longed for the flowering shrubs of her mountains. This was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

27 The Ishtar Gate The Ishtar Gate
1 of 8 Gates built by King Nebuchadnezzar II. Dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, this inner gate was the processional entrance into Babylon. The Ishtar Gate at Babylon Reconstruction Glazed Brick Total Height–47 Feet, Width-32 Feet Neo-Babylonian 7th–6th Centuries BC Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar II Language: Akkadian Date of Excavation: Staatliche Museen , Berlin Dept. of the Near East "Is this not Babylon that I have built…" –Daniel 4:30 The Ishtar Gate, one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon, was built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II ( BC). Only the foundations of the gate were found, going down some 45 feet, with molded, unglazed figures. The gateway has been reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, from the glazed bricks found, so its original height is different in size. Reconstructed height is 47 feet. It was one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon. It was built in about 575 BC, the eighth fortified gate in the city. It is one of the most impressive monuments rediscovered in the ancient Near East. The Ishtar gate was decorated with glazed brick reliefs, in tiers, of dragons and young bulls. The gate itself was a double one, and on its south side was a vast antechamber. Through the gatehouse ran a stone-and brick-paved avenue, the so-called Processional Way, which has been traced over a length of more than half a mile. King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon dedicated the great Ishtar Gate to the goddess Ishtar. It was the main entrance into Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar II performed elaborate building projects in Babylon around BC. His goal was to beautify his capital. He restored the temple of Marduk, the chief god, and also built himself a magnificent palace with the famous Hanging Gardens, which was reported by the Greek historian Herodotus to have been one of the wonders of the world. The Bible records that it was Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed Jerusalem, brought the kingdom of Judah to an end, and carried off the Jews into exile. The Ishtar Gate was the starting point for processions. The Babylonians would assemble in front of it and march through the triumphal arch and proceed along the Sacred Way to the 7-story Ziggurat, which was crowned near the temple of Marduk. The gateway was completely covered with beautifully colored glazed bricks. Its reliefs of dragons and bulls symbolized the gods Marduk and Adad. Enameled tiles of glorious blue surrounded the brightly colored yellow and brown beasts. In front of the gateway outside the city was a road with walls decorated with reliefs of lions and glazed yellow tiles. The Ishtar gate was reconstructed in Berlin out of material excavated by Robert Koldeway. The Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate reads: Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, the faithful prince appointed by the will of Marduk, the highest of princely princes, beloved of Nabu, of prudent counsel, who has learned to embrace wisdom, who fathomed their divine being and reveres their majesty, the untiring governor, who always takes to heart the care of the cult of Esagila and Ezida and is constantly concerned with the well-being of Babylon and Borsippa, the wise, the humble, the caretaker of Esagila and Ezida, the firstborn son of Nabopolassar, the King of Babylon. Both gate entrances of Imgur-Ellil and Nemetti-Ellil following the filling of the street from Babylon had become increasingly lower. Therefore, I pulled down these gates and laid their foundations at the water table with asphalt and bricks and had them made of bricks with blue stone on which wonderful bulls and dragons were depicted. I covered their roofs by laying majestic cedars length-wise over them. I hung doors of cedar adorned with bronze at all the gate openings. I placed wild bulls and ferocious dragons in the gateways and thus adorned them with luxurious splendor so that people might gaze on them in wonder I let the temple of Esiskursiskur (the highest festival house of Markduk, the Lord of the Gods a place of joy and celebration for the major and minor gods) be built firm like a mountain in the precinct of Babylon of asphalt and fired bricks. The Ishtar Gate

28 The Ishtar Gate The Ishtar Gate
830-The Ishtar Gate at Babylon Reconstruction Glazed Brick Total Height–47 Feet, Width-32 Feet Neo-Babylonian 7th–6th Centuries BC Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar II Language: Akkadian Date of Excavation: Staatliche Museen , Berlin Dept. of the Near East "Is this not Babylon that I have built…" –Daniel 4:30 The Ishtar Gate, one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon, was built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II ( BC). Only the foundations of the gate were found, going down some 45 feet, with molded, unglazed figures. The gateway has been reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, from the glazed bricks found, so its original height is different in size. Reconstructed height is 47 feet. It was one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon. It was built in about 575 BC, the eighth fortified gate in the city. It is one of the most impressive monuments rediscovered in the ancient Near East. The Ishtar gate was decorated with glazed brick reliefs, in tiers, of dragons and young bulls. The gate itself was a double one, and on its south side was a vast antechamber. Through the gatehouse ran a stone-and brick-paved avenue, the so-called Processional Way, which has been traced over a length of more than half a mile. King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon dedicated the great Ishtar Gate to the goddess Ishtar. It was the main entrance into Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar II performed elaborate building projects in Babylon around BC. His goal was to beautify his capital. He restored the temple of Marduk, the chief god, and also built himself a magnificent palace with the famous Hanging Gardens, which was reported by the Greek historian Herodotus to have been one of the wonders of the world. The Bible records that it was Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed Jerusalem, brought the kingdom of Judah to an end, and carried off the Jews into exile. The Ishtar Gate was the starting point for processions. The Babylonians would assemble in front of it and march through the triumphal arch and proceed along the Sacred Way to the 7-story Ziggurat, which was crowned near the temple of Marduk. The gateway was completely covered with beautifully colored glazed bricks. Its reliefs of dragons and bulls symbolized the gods Marduk and Adad. Enameled tiles of glorious blue surrounded the brightly colored yellow and brown beasts. In front of the gateway outside the city was a road with walls decorated with reliefs of lions and glazed yellow tiles. The Ishtar gate was reconstructed in Berlin out of material excavated by Robert Koldeway. The Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate reads: Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, the faithful prince appointed by the will of Marduk, the highest of princely princes, beloved of Nabu, of prudent counsel, who has learned to embrace wisdom, who fathomed their divine being and reveres their majesty, the untiring governor, who always takes to heart the care of the cult of Esagila and Ezida and is constantly concerned with the well-being of Babylon and Borsippa, the wise, the humble, the caretaker of Esagila and Ezida, the firstborn son of Nabopolassar, the King of Babylon. Both gate entrances of Imgur-Ellil and Nemetti-Ellil following the filling of the street from Babylon had become increasingly lower. Therefore, I pulled down these gates and laid their foundations at the water table with asphalt and bricks and had them made of bricks with blue stone on which wonderful bulls and dragons were depicted. I covered their roofs by laying majestic cedars length-wise over them. I hung doors of cedar adorned with bronze at all the gate openings. I placed wild bulls and ferocious dragons in the gateways and thus adorned them with luxurious splendor so that people might gaze on them in wonder I let the temple of Esiskursiskur (the highest festival house of Markduk, the Lord of the Gods a place of joy and celebration for the major and minor gods) be built firm like a mountain in the precinct of Babylon of asphalt and fired bricks.

29 Jews taken captive back to Babylon.
The Babylonian Captivity The Babylonian Captivity In 597 BC, Israel fell to Nebuchadnezzar. Solomon’s temple was sacked and the Jews were enslaved and taken to Babylon. They remained enslaved until 539. This was called the Babylonian Captivity. Babylonian captivity  in the history of Israel, the period from the fall of Jerusalem (586 B.C.) to the reconstruction in Palestine of a new Jewish state (after 538 B.C.). After the capture of the city by the Babylonians some thousands, probably selected for their prosperity and importance, were deported to Mesopotamia. The number of those who remained is disputed by scholars. Such deportations were commonplace in Assyrian and Babylonian policy. The exiles maintained close links with their kinsmen at home, as is clear from Ezekiel, the prophet of the early years of the Exile. In 538 B.C., Cyrus the Great, the new master of the empire, initiated a new attitude toward the nations and decreed the restoration of worship at Jerusalem. The century following this decree was critical in the history of the Jews, for it is the time of their reintegration into a national and religious unit. For parts of the period, Ezra and Nehemiah are the best sources. The prophesied 70 years of captivity were fulfilled when the new Temple was completed in 516 B.C. Jews taken captive back to Babylon.

30 The Babylonian Captivity The Babylonian Captivity
827-Babylonian captivity  in the history of Israel, the period from the fall of Jerusalem (586 B.C.) to the reconstruction in Palestine of a new Jewish state (after 538 B.C.). After the capture of the city by the Babylonians some thousands, probably selected for their prosperity and importance, were deported to Mesopotamia. The number of those who remained is disputed by scholars. Such deportations were commonplace in Assyrian and Babylonian policy. The exiles maintained close links with their kinsmen at home, as is clear from Ezekiel, the prophet of the early years of the Exile. In 538 B.C., Cyrus the Great, the new master of the empire, initiated a new attitude toward the nations and decreed the restoration of worship at Jerusalem. The century following this decree was critical in the history of the Jews, for it is the time of their reintegration into a national and religious unit. For parts of the period, Ezra and Nehemiah are the best sources. The prophesied 70 years of captivity were fulfilled when the new Temple was completed in 516 B.C.

31 The Persian Empire The Persian Empire
The Persians arose from a mountain tribe in S. Iran. Within a single generation, they were established as the #1 power in the world. They were known for their spectacular military success, their wealth and invincibility.

32 The Persian Empire The Persian Empire
The Khorasan Highway – or the King’s Highway allowed the Persians to create the 1st multi-cultural empire in the world. The Persians were tolerant rulers, but each citizen was a subject of the king.

33 Persia - Cyrus the Great Persia - Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great was an Indo European and Persian. (Iran) He liberated the Jews and allowed them to return home. He created a powerful Persian empire in 559 BC, that lasted until Alexander’s conquest in 330 BC. Cyrus (Kourosh in Persian; Kouros in Greek) is regarded as one of the most outstanding figures in history. His success in creating and maintaining the Achaemenian Empire was the result of an intelligent blending of diplomatic and military skills and his rule was tempered with wisdom and tact. The Persians called him 'father'; the Greeks, whom he conquered, saw him as 'a worthy ruler and lawgiver' and the Jews regarded him as 'the Lord's anointed'. His ideals were high, as he laid down that no man was fit to rule unless, he was more capable than all of his subjects. As an administrator Cyrus' insight was great, and he showed himself both intelligent and reasonable, and thereby made his rule easier than that of his previous conquerors. His humanity was equaled by his freedom from pride, which induced him to meet people on the same level, instead of affecting the remoteness and aloofness, which characterized the great monarchs who preceded and followed him. History has further labeled him as a genius, diplomat, manager, and leader of men, the first great propagandist and able strategist. Cyrus was indeed worthy of the title "Great". *** Cyrus the Great, came to power after deposing the Median king Astyages in 550 BC. After a series of victories over the Lydian king, Croesus, in 546 BC, and after his successful campaign against the Babylonians in 539 BC, Cyrus established a large empire stretching from the Mediterranean in the west to eastern Iran, and from the Black Sea in the north to Arabia. Whereas security was his main concern in the east, the immense wealth of the Greek maritime cities of the Ionian coast complemented their value as strategic bases in the west. He was killed in 530 BC during a campaign in the north-eastern part of his empire. Xenophon in the Cyropaedia wrote: "He is able to extend the fear of himself over so great a part of the world that he astonished all, and no one attempted anything against him. He was able to inspire all with so great a desire of pleasing him that they wished to be governed by his opinions". The following Chapters provide an insight into the background, life, and achievements of Cyrus the Great:http://www.artarena.force9.co.uk/cyrus.htm Cambyses – the son of Cyrus, was his successor. He expanded his empire into Western India and Europe into Thrace and parts of Greece. Cyrus the Great

34 Persian Kings - Darius Persian Kings - Darius
Persian Kings had absolute power. Divided empire into 20 satraps or provinces ruled by a governor. Collected taxes, provided justice and security. Recruited soldiers for the king’s army. Painting of Baghdad.

35 Persian Kings - Darius Persian Kings - Darius Darius’ Army –
10,000 men in the Cavalry. Elite Infantry of 10,000 men called the “Immortals.” (Their numbers were never allowed to drop below 10,000). Persian Kings had many wives and children. Example – King Artaxerxes II – 115 sons all plotted and conspired against one another. Constant struggles for the empire ended up weakening the empire. Alexander the Great will conquer this empire in 330 BC.

36 Persian Religion Persian Religion
The religion that developed in Persia was Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism – monotheistic religion. Believed in Ahura Mazda, the “Wise lord," and divine judgment. People were free to choose.

37 Alexander the Great Alexander the Great
In 330 BC, Alexander the Great will defeat the Persian King, Darius. Key Battles – Issus Granicus, and Gaugamela. Alexander will go on to conquer the known world. People were free to choose. Alexander the Great

38 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding
What kind of power did Persian kings have? What nickname was given to Darius’ infantry? What religion developed in Persia? Who will finally defeat the Persians?


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