Presentation on theme: "Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Mesopotamian Civilization Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates."— Presentation transcript:
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Mesopotamian Civilization Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders.
Mesopotamia’s Civilization Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions. They also made it easy for people to travel and trade. Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system. (pages 17–20) Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good. Mesopotamian Civilization
Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable. Farmers learned to control the rivers with dams and channels. Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) They also used the rivers to irrigate, or water, their crops. Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17–20)
Sumerian cities were city-states, with their own governments. Sumerian cities often fought each other. Many cities formed in a southern region of Mesopotamia known as Sumer. Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) To protect themselves, the city-states built walls around themselves. Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17–20)
Each city- state had a ziggurat, or grand temple, to honor the gods. Sumerians believed in many gods. Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17–20)
Most Sumerians were farmers, but some were artisans, or skilled workers. Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) Others were merchants and traders. Mesopotamian Civilization Sumerian city-states had three classes. The upper class consisted of kings, priests, and government officials. The middle class consisted of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) The lower class consisted of slaves. Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17–20)
A Skilled People Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas. Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas. (pages 20–21) Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform. Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write. Mesopotamian Civilization
Sargon and Hammurabi Sargon, the king of the Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world’s first empire. (page 23) An empire is a group of many different lands under one ruler. After Sargon, another group of people became powerful. They built the city of Babylon on the Euphrates River. Mesopotamian Civilization
Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.) The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, conquered lands north and south of Babylon to create the Babylonian Empire. (page 23) The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system. Mesopotamian Civilization
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Empires Assyria’s military power and well organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C. The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week.
The Assyrians The Assyrian empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi. The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons. Their weapons were stronger than those of copper and tin. (pages 27–28) The First Empires
They fought with spears, daggers, bows and arrows, chariots and soldiers on horseback. The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27–28)
The empire was divided into provinces, which are political districts. Each province was governed by an official who collected taxes and enforced laws. The capital of the Assyrian empire was Nineveh. The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27–28)
One of the first libraries was in Nineveh and held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs. People began to rebel because of Assyria’s cruel treatment. The Assyrians built large temples and palaces, with statues and wall carvings. The Assyrians (cont.) The Chaldeans rebelled and took control of Nineveh in 612 B.C. The First Empires (pages 27–28)
The Chaldeans The Chaldeans, who were descendents of Babylonians, rebuilt Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar was the king of the Chaldeans. (pages 29–30) The city became the center of the Chaldeans’ empire. The city was surrounded by a huge wall. Inside the wall were palaces, temples, and a huge ziggurat. The First Empires
The Chaldeans (cont.) The Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Nebechadnezzar ordered the Hanging Gardens to be built for his wife, who missed her green, mountainous homeland. The First Empires (pages 29–30)
The Chaldeans (cont.) The Chaldeans were merchants, artisans, and traders. Babylon was on a major trade route and profited from trade. The First Empires (pages 29–30)
The First Empires Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting force? It had a well-organized army with advanced weapons.
Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization The First Civilizations Review Main Ideas Where were the first civilizations in Mesopotamia? in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Section 3 The First Empires What helped Assyria build an empire in Mesopotamia? its military power and well organized government The First Civilizations Review Main Ideas
The First Civilizations Section 3 The First Empires Review Main Ideas What scientific advancement did the Chaldeans make? They mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon; created the sundial; and used the seven-day week.