2 The First EmpiresBy 2400 B.C., Sumer’s city states were weakened by conflict.As they lost power, powerful kingdoms in Northern Mesopotamia and Syria arose.They sought to create Empires.Many different lands under one ruler.Through conquest and trade they expanded.
3 Who was Sargon? The ambitious leader of the kingdom of Akkad. He took his army and conquered the remaining Sumerian City-States one by one.By uniting these areas he became king of Sumer as well.Created the first Empire which lasted 200 years before it was taken over.
4 Who was HammurabiThe Amorites were a people that lived west of Mesopotamia.They conquered Mesopotamia and created their own cities.Babylon was the greatest of these cities.Located in what is now Iraq.Hammurabi was king of Babylon and expanded his empire by taking control the cities North and South.
5 Hammurabi’s Code Hammurabi was considered a just ruler. Best known for creating laws for his empire.Included Crimes, farming, business, marriage and family. Almost every area of life.It also listed punishments for each crime.The laws were much more strict than those of Sumeria.“An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth?”
6 Hammurabi’s CodeThe seriousness of the crime should match the punishment.Was intended to get rid of blood feuds.The code also protected the less powerful.Such as protecting wives from being abused by their husbands.Would later influence laws in Greece and Rome.
7 The Assyrian Empire1,000 years later would have the rise of the Assyrian Empire.Expanded across four present day countries: Turkey, Syria, Iran, and Iraq.The powerful armies were used to protect their lands and eventually expand the empire.
8 The Assyrian Army Well trained and disciplined. 50,000 Infantry – Foot SoldiersCavalry – Horse SoldiersCharioteers – Used ChariotsWeapons: Swords, Spears, Slingshots, bows and arrows.
9 The Assyrian Army Very destructive attacks. Destroyed towns and dams, robbed people, set crops on fire.Demanded tributes (forced payments) from conquered people.Word of their brutality spread and people would surrender without a fight.They had the advantage of iron weapons.
10 Kings and GovernmentsThe Kings needed to be powerful to rule such a big area.They divided the empire into provinces.Governed as a political district of a country or empire.Government built roads to connect these areas.King chose officials to govern, collect taxes, and carry out laws.Soldier were placed alongside the road to protect traders from bandits.
11 Life in AssyriaThe lives of Assyrians were built on what they learned from other Mesopotamian people.Laws had more severe punishments.Writing was based on Babylonian writing.Worshipped many of these same gods.Temples had wall carvings and statues.One of the ancient kings named Ashurbanipal built one of the world’s first libraries in Nineveh.It had 25,000 tablets of stories and songs on tablets.
12 Life in AssyriaFarming and trade were both important to the Assyrians.They imported wood and metal to supply their empire with material for building and making tools and weapons.
13 The Chaldean Empire For 300 years the Assyrians were in rule. The people would often rebel because of the harsh rulers and eventually causes the Chaldeans to take over.
14 A New EmpireWhen the Chaldeans had moved into Southern Mesopotamia they were quickly taken over by the Assyrians.They hated their new rulers and were never completely under Assyrian control.The Chaldean King Nabopolassar reclaimed his kingdom while the Assyrians were fighting each other.In 627 B.C., Nabopolassar led a revolt.
15 A New EmpireWithin a year, he forced the Assyrians out of Uruk and was crowned King of Babylonia.The Medes people also wanted to break free and joined the Chaldeans and combined defeated the Assyrians.In 612 B.C., they completely took over and burned Nineveh to the ground (The Assyrian Capital)
16 A New EmpireNabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar created a new empire.This new empire consisted of people originally from the Babylon empire.The city of Babylon would be the new capital and the Chaldean empire is sometimes known as the New Babylonian Empire.
17 The Greatness of Babylon Babylon would become the richest and largest city of the world. It had brick walls with towers so soldier can watch for intruders.The Ziggurats golden roof could be seen from miles away when the sun shone on it.The Palace had much greenery and would be known as the Hanging Gardens.Considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.The Hanging gardens had a complex irrigation system to keep all the plants watered.King Nebuchadnezzar built a beautiful street for his people to visit near the palace.
18 The Greatness of Babylon The street was also used in celebration every spring for the god Marduk.It was believed he would bring peace and better crops.The taxes and tributes were high to keep the empire running smoothly.Merchants traveled in Caravans (traveling group) and helped Babylon prospers.The area used to be poor because of the Assyrians.The Chaldeans also invented one of the first sundials and the first to follow seven-day weeks.
19 The Fall of an EmpireAfter Nebuchadnezzar died, The Chaldean empire had a series of weak kings and coupled with weak harvest were taken over by the Persians.The Persians allowed them to keep their distinct culture.They did not want to destroy all the Chaldeans had accomplished.