Presentation on theme: "Alexander the Great Key Terms Philip II Phalanx Alexander the Great Hellenistic The Big Idea: Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander the Great Key Terms Philip II Phalanx Alexander the Great Hellenistic The Big Idea: Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread Greek culture into Egypt and Asia.
Macedonia to the North Greece underestimated Macedonia. Philip II, Macedonia’s new king, began to plan his attack on Greece. Athenian leaders knew they would be attacked but couldn’t rally troops. Macedonia attacked and defeated Greece. Philip II was adopted as Greece’s leader. The Greeks thought the Macedonians were barbarians.
Philip’s Military Strength Philip was an awesome military leader. He is famous for perfecting the phalanx. A phalanx was a group of warriors who stood close together in a square, each with a spear. As soldiers were killed, another would step forward. After tackling Greece, Philip II looked to conquer Persia. Unfortunately, he was murdered, passing his throne to his son, Alexander. Philip’s spears were 16 feet long.
Alexander Gets Angry After Philip died, Thebes, another Greek city, rebelled against Alexander. Alexander made an example of Thebes by destroying the city and enslaving its people. Confident nobody else would rebel, Alexander began to build an empire. Alexander was only 20 when he took power. Alexander earned the name Alexander the Great when he became one of the greatest conquerors in history.
Building an Empire Alexander started by invading Persia, winning over and over. Then, he went into Egypt and was immediately crowned a pharaoh without a fight. Alexander then defeated Persia once and for all after the king fled, making him the ruler. How do you think historians know this is a picture of Alexander the Great?
Alexander’s Death Alexander wanted to continue building his empire, but his army refused to go on. On his way home, Alexander got sick in Babylon. He died at 33 and was taken to Egypt to be buried in a golden coffin. Nobody knows how Alexander died, but some say he was poisoned. Others say it was malaria.
Greek Culture Spreads Alexander’s empire was the biggest ever. He founded cities in the lands he conquered and named many Alexandria. He modeled many cities after Greece with temples and theaters. Alexander encouraged Greeks to move to the new cities. Greek language, art, literature, and science spread around Alex’s empire.
Greek Culture Spreads Alexander also encouraged his new people to keep their cultures. This mixed Greek culture with the original cultures. These new cultures were called Hellenistic, or Greek like. Hellenistic combined Persian, Egyptian, Syrian, and other cultures with Greek ideas. Alexander’s empire was a melting pot of cultures!
Hellenistic Kingdoms When Alexander died, he did not have an obvious heir. Three generals ended up fighting for and winning power. One became king of Macedonia, another of Egypt, and the third of Greece.
The new Syria had too many different cultures and differing ideas to survive. They were also defeated by Romans. The new Egypt developed a center of culture and learning. Eventually, it was conquered By Rome. The new Macedonia had a weak government and was conquered by the Romans. Hellenistic Kingdoms