2Themes: In novels, author communicate “big ideas” about certain topics Themes: In novels, author communicate “big ideas” about certain topics. What is Lowry trying to tell us about:Memories & the PastLanguageIsolationRules, Order & TraditionSufferingOld AgeChoicesEmotions
37 Basic Plots in Fiction (short stories and novels) Overcoming the monster: The hero must destroy the “monster” to restore balance to the world.Rags to Riches: A good guy who is down on his luck achieves a happy ending when his/her natural talents are revealedThe Quest: The hero travels in search of a treasure and must defeat evil and overcome powerful odds.Voyage and Return: Otherwise normal protagonists find themselves in an alien world & must make their way backChristopher Booker
4Comedy: (As in Shakespeare) Some kind of confusion must be resolved before the hero and heroine can get back togetherTragedy: (As in Shakespeare) A story about a noble character who falls from grace: everybody dies or is ruinedRebirth: A threat seems nearly victorious, but events lead to redemption, rebirth, and happiness.
5Character Analysis Protagonist/Antagonist Development: Character Analysis Protagonist/Antagonist Development: flat (one-sided character, one quality) round (both the good & the bad, many qualities) Change: static (does not change) dynamic (changes – internal)Jonas (round/dynamic)Asher (flat/static)Jonas’ motherThe GiverJonas’ fatherGabrielLily
6Setting: Time and Place The Giver: in the future/our world UtopiaNo suffering (emotional/physical)No fighting/warPerfect familiesRestricted emotionscontentmentDystopiaDoes not feel joyNo genuine relationshipsNo love/sexual attractionNo choicesIsolationTyranny (oppressive gov’t)(ruled by oligarchy = rule by a group)
7Genre: categories of text The GiverUtopianOther genresScience fictionEssayNonfictionBiographyOral literatureFantasyRealistic fictionHistorical fiction
8Style: they way it is written The Giver:straightforward narrative (story)Other terms to describe style:FlowerySimple language; shorter sentences; not childishConversationalEuphemisticFormalPoeticVague (not clear)Wordy
9The Title: always ask how the title links to a theme In The Giver, the title reflects the central theme: Humans are mean to share experiencesA “giver” and “receiver” tells us that memories are meant to be shared in order for people to love & grow & thrive.
10Point of View: Who is the narrator. Can he/she read minds Point of View: Who is the narrator? Can he/she read minds? Can we trust him/her?1st person (pronouns: I, my, we, our, us)Limited? Then the reader only knows the thoughts of one of the charactersPersonal, intense, subjective, emotionalOr2nd person (pronouns: you, your)Omniscient? Then the reader knows the thoughts of all charactersReader is the center of attention (e.g. instructions)3rd person (pronouns: they, him, her, it)Reminder: the narrator /persona is NOT the same as the authorObjective when used for research or reportsSubjective when used for an “as told to” story
11Symbols/Allegory/Imagery: What stands for something else Symbols/Allegory/Imagery: What stands for something else? Look for two meaningsSymbols: a thing that represents something deeper and more meaningfulAllegory: a story where the characters and events are symbols for ideas about human lifeThe Lion, the Witch, and the WardrobeImagery: language that causes the reader to imagine pictures in their minds (comparisons, appeals to the senses)Examples of symbols in The Giver:The color red = fire, intensity, loveGabriel = a better futureThe sled = memories, escape
12Plot Parts: inciting incident, rising action & complication, climax, falling action conclusion The Giver inciting incident: “Ceremony of Twelve”Rising Action: Jonas in named as the Received & finds out how difficult it is, and he becomes alienated from his societyClimax: Jonas watches his father kill the babyFalling action: Escape to ElsewhereConclusion: Uncertain
13Types of ConflictMan vs man/societyMan vs natureMan vs self
14Analyze the Ending Jonas abandons security and a life of ease Jonas clearly is seeking freedom and choice (even a choice to live)Two choices: do Gabe and Jonas live or die?Both outcomes turn the society upside downLive: trailblazersDie: memories are released for the community to deal with
15PerspectiveHow did the idea of “release” as it had been discussed earlier in the book differ from the visual imagery of the newchild’s actual release?Why does it affect us this way?What is more important: how they released or why they released?Ideas Lowry wants us to note: secrecy, euphemisms, order/systematic procedures