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Royal Power Grows Chapter 8 Sect 1.

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1 Royal Power Grows Chapter 8 Sect 1

2 Royal Power Grows High Middle Ages (1000-1300)
Monarchs began to centralize power Set up a system of royal justice. Created their own armies and tax systems Started appealing more to the middle class for support.

3 Royal Power Grows William of Normandy
Conquered England by raising an army and getting support from the Pope. (1066) Granted land to the Church Took a census in 1086 called the “Domesday Book” Listed every castle, field, and building in England. Help build a system of tax collections and treasuries.

4 Royal Power Grows

5 Royal Power Grows Henry II
Expanded law in England by accepting customs as law. Common Law-Legal system based on customs and court rulings. Applied these rules to EVERYONE, not just the upper class. Developed an early jury system Caused a bitter dispute w/ the church (p.246)

6 Royal Power Grows King John
Lost battles with King Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and many of his own English Nobles. English Nobles forced him to sign MAGNA CARTA in 1215. Granted certain rights to citizens in England and placed rules on the Monarch Due Process- Government cannot take away your rights without a trial. Habeas Corpus- You cannot be held in prison without being charged of a crime

7 Royal Power Grows Parliament
House of Lords- made up of nobles and high clergy. House of Commons- Knights and middle class. (King Edward in 1295) Limited the power of the King King had to meet Parliaments demands before they would sign things for him. (Known as “power of the purse”)

8 Royal Power Grows Capetian Kings Phillip Augustus
Hugh Capet- Made the French throne hereditary. Built a bureaucracy and collected taxes to strengthen the throne Phillip Augustus Paid middle class officials for loyalty Chartered new towns and introduced a national tax. Conquered land from England and was the most powerful ruler in Europe

9 Royal Power Grows Louis IX
Very religious and persecuted those who went against the church He expanded royal courts and created a strong national feeling among his subjects. After a struggle with the Pope, he created the Estates General in 1302. The Estates General was made up of 3 classes: Clergy Nobles Townspeople

10 Section 8 Review During the High Middle Ages, the balance of power shifted from the people to whom? Who required everyone to swear allegiance to him? What was Henry II’s greatest accomplishment? Which French King led a series of “Crusades”? Which term means you cannot be imprisoned without being charged of a crime?

11 Section 8 Review During the High Middle Ages, the balance of power shifted from the people to whom? The monarchs Who required everyone to swear allegiance to him? William the Conqueror

12 Section 8 Review What was Henry II’s greatest accomplishment?
Developing a unified legal system Which French King led a series of “Crusades”? Louis IX Which term means you cannot be imprisoned without being charged of a crime? Habeas Corpus

13 The Holy Roman Empire and the Church (926 A.D.-1806 A.D.)
Section 2 The Holy Roman Empire and the Church (926 A.D A.D.)

14 Vocab Holy Roman Empire- The empire of west central Europe from 962 to 1806, comprising present day Germany and neighboring lands. Henry IV- King of Germany who became Holy Roman emperor. He was excommunicated from the church by Gregory VII.

15 Vocab Pope Gregory VII- made many reforms that people did not like. He banned the practice of lay investiture and excommunicated Henry IV. Lay investiture- appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy. Frederick Barbarrosa- Holy Roman emperor who tried to bring all of Italy under his control

16 Vocab Pope Innocent III- He claimed supremacy over all rulers. He launched a crusade in France in 1209.

17 Holy Roman Empire and the Church
Otto I Took the title of the King of Germany Worked very closely with the Church 962- Crowned as the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire German emperors had their vassals rule the land but could not control them They battled popes over the appointment of bishops within the areas.

18 Holy Roman Empire and the Church
Feuds between Popes and Emperors Pope Gregory VII wanted the Church independent of secular rule. Ended Lay Investiture-Process of Kings or lords appointing or “investing” in bishops Henry IV-Argued he could appoint bishops since they were on his fiefs (lands). German princes undermined Henry and support the pope. Gregory VII-Excommunicated Henry IV and tried to crown a new emperor

19 Holy Roman Empire and the Church
Henry confessed as a sinner to be forgiven so he could retake control of Germany. Led an army to Rome to exile the Pope. Concordat of Worms- Church elected and installed bishops. Emperors still gave them fiefs. Struggle for Italy Frederick I (Barbarossa) tried to bring the wealthy cities of Italy under his rule Could never accomplish this because the Italians fought back and joined the Lombard League.

20 The Holy Roman Empire and the Church
Arranged a marriage between his son and the heiress of Sicily. Frederick II (son of Frederick I) tried to take over Italy but failed. German nobles grew independent while he focused on Italy. Italy turned to the French to get rid of Frederick’s heirs. A local uprising against French rule led to 200 years of fighting which completely destroyed the city.

21 The Holy Roman Empire and the Church
Church Power Reaches Its Height Pope Innocent III took control in 1198. Claimed supremacy over all rulers. Waged a holy war against heretics of S. France. (Albigensians) Tens of thousands of people were slaughtered. Strengthened the Church’s power. Innocent also reformed the church After his death, French & English monarchs strengthened and challenged the pope’s power.

22 Sect. 3 Terms, People, Places
Crusades- A series of wars where Christians tried to gain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims. Holy Lands- Lands between Palestine and Jerusalem where Christians believed Jesus was born. Pope Urban II- Called for the 1st Crusade to win back the Holy Land and gain more power in Europe.

23 Sect. 3 Terms, People, Places
4. Reconquista- The campaign by European Christians to drive Muslims from present-day Spain. 5. Ferdinand and Isabella- Their marriage in 1469 unified Spain and help complete the Reconquista. 6. Inquisition- A Church court set up by Isabella to try people accused of heresy in Spain.

24 The Crusades and the Wider World
Section 3 The Crusades and the Wider World

25 Vocab Crusades- A series of wars over the Holy Land.
Holy Land- Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Christ lived and preached. Pope Urban II- Pope who called for a Crusade to take back the Holy Land. Reconquista- The campaign to drive Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula

26 Vocab Ferdinand and Isabella- Their marriage unified Spain. They made a final push to drive the Muslims from Spain. Inquisition- A church court set up to try people of heresy.

27 The Crusades and the Wider World
Crusades-Christian battled Muslims for control of Holy Lands in the Middle East. The World in 1050 Islam was established from Spain to India Civilizations were growing all over the world. 1071-Islamic Turks from Central Asia had taken over Holy lands of the Byzantine Empire.

28 The Crusades and the Wider World
This kept Christians from making pilgrimages to the Holy Land. The Crusades Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for Christian Knights to fight the Muslim Turks. Urban called for a Crusade for the Holy Land at Council of Clermont in 1095. Hoped to increase power in Europe and end the split between the Romans and Byzantines.

29 The Crusades and the Wider World
1st Crusade-Christian knights massacred Muslims & Jews in Jerusalem (1099). Muslim kept trying to destroy Christian Crusader states, leading to more crusades. Saladin- Muslim leader who took control of Jerusalem in 1187 but did allow Christians to pilgrimages. Crusaders started fighting with other Christians and overthrew Constantinople. Muslims eventually overthrew all crusader states and in 1291 massacred Christians after taking the last Christian post.

30 The Crusades and the Wider World
The Effects of the Crusades Crusades led to religious turmoil throughout Europe and the Middle East. Muslims vs. Christians Christians vs. Jews Crusades strengthened Muslims by uniting rival Muslim groups from Egypt to Syria. Crusades strengthened monarch’s ability to tax. Curiosity of new lands led to explorations from Europe to the wider world.

31 The Crusades and the Wider World
Trade also increased and expanded as Crusaders brought back fabrics, spices, and perfumes from the Middle East. This encouraged the growth of a money economy.

32 The Crusades and the Wider World
The Reconquista Moors- Muslims from North Africa who conquered most of present day Spain in the 700s. Christian Kingdoms started expanding and taking over Muslim lands, starting the Reconquista. Over the next 200 years, Christian cities moved southward and in 1140 established the Kingdom of Portugal.

33 The Crusades and the Wider World
By 1300, Christians had taken over the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) but Muslim influence remained very strong. 1469- Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married and united the state of Spain and completed the Reconquista in 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to impose their beliefs on the diverse culture of Spain, so they began Inquisition to convert Jews and Muslims to Christianity or they would die.

34 Quiz Study Guide Vocabulary- Crusades Holy Land Pope Urban II
Ferdinand and Isabella Reconquista Inquisition

35 Quiz Study Guide Where was the Byzantine Empire? What was it before it was the Byzantine Empire? What was Pope Urban II’s reason (s) for starting the Crusades? What happened in Constantinople during the 4th Crusade? What were Ferdinand and Isabella’s religious policies called? What did they do?

36 Learning and Culture Flourish
Section 4 Learning and Culture Flourish

37 Learning and Culture Flourish
Medieval Universities Emerge Improved economic and political conditions during the High Middle Ages. Education became important Cathedral Schools became the first universities. Specialty schools began to show. Life was tough with poor facilities and students had to memorize lectures.

38 Learning and Culture Flourish
A bachelor’s degree took 3-6 years and a master’s degree took several years more. Women could not receive a university education but learned from convents. Muslims translated many works of Greek thinkers. Sparked a learning revolution. Scholasticism- Using reason to support beliefs.

39 Learning and Culture Flourish
Thomas Aquinas- said faith and reason existed in harmony and led to the truth that God rules. Science and Math made little progress because they didn’t go with Church teachings. Adopted Hindu-Arabic numerals instead of Roman numerals.

40 Learning and Culture Flourish
Medieval Literature Writings appeared in vernacular, or everyday language. People began writing oral traditions. Dante Alighieri- The Divine Comedy His journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven. Geoffrey Chaucer- The Canterbury Tales Characters tell tales on their way to Saint Thomas Becket’s tomb.

41 Learning and Culture Flourish
Architecture 1140-Gothic style with flying buttresses or stone supports outside the building. High thinner walls for stained glass windows. Stone sculptures became popular as decoration. Altarpieces-symbolizes religious ideas Illumination-decorating books with brilliant colors

42 Section 5 Time of Crisis

43 Time of Crisis The Black Death (1347)
Bubonic Plague- spread by fleas from rats. Became an epidemic Came from rats who infested Chinese cities in the early 1300s. (35 million dead) Traders from Europe to Asia brought disease back to Europe. There was no solution to the disease People tried magic or thought it was God’s will.

44 Time of Crisis Upheaval in the Church Life began to break down
Production died as the population dropped Inflation surged as healthy workers demanded more money Social and economic unrest lasted for over 100 years. Upheaval in the Church The church could not provide strong leadership and people lashed out at the pope for his lavish lifestyle and for moving the throne to France

45 Time of Crisis 1378-Roman reformers elected a pope to rule from Rome.
Created a schism- split in the church. 1417-Council in Germany removed power from popes and elected Martin V to rule from Rome. People began fighting against church rule. John Wycliffe-Said the Bible, NOT the church was the truth. Translated Bible into English. Burned at the stake for heresy.

46 Time of Crisis The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
England wanted land back from France. Edward III-Son of a French princess, claimed the French throne, starting the war. He wanted control of the English Channel and trade. Joan of Arc-claimed she was sent by God to save France. Charles VII let her lead an army. Led the French to several victories.

47 Time of Crisis She was captured by the English and burned at the stake for witchcraft. She was declared a saint. French fought inspired and with a new weapon called the canon, defeated the English. Throughout the war, English monarchs turned to Parliament for funds for the war, weakening their power. The war caused England to created a large, powerful army, instead of using royal vassals.

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