2Royal Power Grows High Middle Ages (1000-1300) Monarchs began to centralize powerSet up a system of royal justice.Created their own armies and tax systemsStarted appealing more to the middle class for support.
3Royal Power Grows William of Normandy Conquered England by raising an army and getting support from the Pope. (1066)Granted land to the ChurchTook a census in 1086 called the “Domesday Book”Listed every castle, field, and building in England.Help build a system of tax collections and treasuries.
5Royal Power Grows Henry II Expanded law in England by accepting customs as law.Common Law-Legal system based on customs and court rulings.Applied these rules to EVERYONE, not just the upper class.Developed an early jury systemCaused a bitter dispute w/ the church (p.246)
6Royal Power Grows King John Lost battles with King Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and many of his own English Nobles.English Nobles forced him to sign MAGNA CARTA in 1215.Granted certain rights to citizens in England and placed rules on the MonarchDue Process- Government cannot take away your rights without a trial.Habeas Corpus- You cannot be held in prison without being charged of a crime
7Royal Power Grows Parliament House of Lords- made up of nobles and high clergy.House of Commons- Knights and middle class. (King Edward in 1295)Limited the power of the KingKing had to meet Parliaments demands before they would sign things for him. (Known as “power of the purse”)
8Royal Power Grows Capetian Kings Phillip Augustus Hugh Capet- Made the French throne hereditary.Built a bureaucracy and collected taxes to strengthen the thronePhillip AugustusPaid middle class officials for loyaltyChartered new towns and introduced a national tax.Conquered land from England and was the most powerful ruler in Europe
9Royal Power Grows Louis IX Very religious and persecuted those who went against the churchHe expanded royal courts and created a strong national feeling among his subjects.After a struggle with the Pope, he created the Estates General in 1302.The Estates General was made up of 3 classes:ClergyNoblesTownspeople
10Section 8 ReviewDuring the High Middle Ages, the balance of power shifted from the people to whom?Who required everyone to swear allegiance to him?What was Henry II’s greatest accomplishment?Which French King led a series of “Crusades”?Which term means you cannot be imprisoned without being charged of a crime?
11Section 8 ReviewDuring the High Middle Ages, the balance of power shifted from the people to whom?The monarchsWho required everyone to swear allegiance to him?William the Conqueror
12Section 8 Review What was Henry II’s greatest accomplishment? Developing a unified legal systemWhich French King led a series of “Crusades”?Louis IXWhich term means you cannot be imprisoned without being charged of a crime?Habeas Corpus
13The Holy Roman Empire and the Church (926 A.D.-1806 A.D.) Section 2The Holy Roman Empire and the Church(926 A.D A.D.)
14VocabHoly Roman Empire- The empire of west central Europe from 962 to 1806, comprising present day Germany and neighboring lands.Henry IV- King of Germany who became Holy Roman emperor. He was excommunicated from the church by Gregory VII.
15VocabPope Gregory VII- made many reforms that people did not like. He banned the practice of lay investiture and excommunicated Henry IV.Lay investiture- appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy.Frederick Barbarrosa- Holy Roman emperor who tried to bring all of Italy under his control
16VocabPope Innocent III- He claimed supremacy over all rulers. He launched a crusade in France in 1209.
17Holy Roman Empire and the Church Otto ITook the title of the King of GermanyWorked very closely with the Church962- Crowned as the first emperor of the Holy Roman EmpireGerman emperors had their vassals rule the land but could not control themThey battled popes over the appointment of bishops within the areas.
18Holy Roman Empire and the Church Feuds between Popes and EmperorsPope Gregory VII wanted the Church independent of secular rule.Ended Lay Investiture-Process of Kings or lords appointing or “investing” in bishopsHenry IV-Argued he could appoint bishops since they were on his fiefs (lands).German princes undermined Henry and support the pope.Gregory VII-Excommunicated Henry IV and tried to crown a new emperor
19Holy Roman Empire and the Church Henry confessed as a sinner to be forgiven so he could retake control of Germany.Led an army to Rome to exile the Pope.Concordat of Worms- Church elected and installed bishops. Emperors still gave them fiefs.Struggle for ItalyFrederick I (Barbarossa) tried to bring the wealthy cities of Italy under his ruleCould never accomplish this because the Italians fought back and joined the Lombard League.
20The Holy Roman Empire and the Church Arranged a marriage between his son and the heiress of Sicily.Frederick II (son of Frederick I) tried to take over Italy but failed.German nobles grew independent while he focused on Italy.Italy turned to the French to get rid of Frederick’s heirs.A local uprising against French rule led to 200 years of fighting which completely destroyed the city.
21The Holy Roman Empire and the Church Church Power Reaches Its HeightPope Innocent III took control in 1198.Claimed supremacy over all rulers.Waged a holy war against heretics of S. France. (Albigensians)Tens of thousands of people were slaughtered.Strengthened the Church’s power.Innocent also reformed the churchAfter his death, French & English monarchs strengthened and challenged the pope’s power.
22Sect. 3 Terms, People, Places Crusades- A series of wars where Christians tried to gain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims.Holy Lands- Lands between Palestine and Jerusalem where Christians believed Jesus was born.Pope Urban II- Called for the 1st Crusade to win back the Holy Land and gain more power in Europe.
23Sect. 3 Terms, People, Places 4. Reconquista- The campaign by European Christians to drive Muslims from present-day Spain.5. Ferdinand and Isabella- Their marriage in 1469 unified Spain and help complete the Reconquista.6. Inquisition- A Church court set up by Isabella to try people accused of heresy in Spain.
24The Crusades and the Wider World Section 3The Crusades and the Wider World
25Vocab Crusades- A series of wars over the Holy Land. Holy Land- Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Christ lived and preached.Pope Urban II- Pope who called for a Crusade to take back the Holy Land.Reconquista- The campaign to drive Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula
26VocabFerdinand and Isabella- Their marriage unified Spain. They made a final push to drive the Muslims from Spain.Inquisition- A church court set up to try people of heresy.
27The Crusades and the Wider World Crusades-Christian battled Muslims for control of Holy Lands in the Middle East.The World in 1050Islam was established from Spain to IndiaCivilizations were growing all over the world.1071-Islamic Turks from Central Asia had taken over Holy lands of the Byzantine Empire.
28The Crusades and the Wider World This kept Christians from making pilgrimages to the Holy Land.The CrusadesByzantine Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for Christian Knights to fight the Muslim Turks.Urban called for a Crusade for the Holy Land at Council of Clermont in 1095.Hoped to increase power in Europe and end the split between the Romans and Byzantines.
29The Crusades and the Wider World 1st Crusade-Christian knights massacred Muslims & Jews in Jerusalem (1099).Muslim kept trying to destroy Christian Crusader states, leading to more crusades.Saladin- Muslim leader who took control of Jerusalem in 1187 but did allow Christians to pilgrimages.Crusaders started fighting with other Christians and overthrew Constantinople.Muslims eventually overthrew all crusader states and in 1291 massacred Christians after taking the last Christian post.
30The Crusades and the Wider World The Effects of the CrusadesCrusades led to religious turmoil throughout Europe and the Middle East.Muslims vs. ChristiansChristians vs. JewsCrusades strengthened Muslims by uniting rival Muslim groups from Egypt to Syria.Crusades strengthened monarch’s ability to tax.Curiosity of new lands led to explorations from Europe to the wider world.
31The Crusades and the Wider World Trade also increased and expanded as Crusaders brought back fabrics, spices, and perfumes from the Middle East.This encouraged the growth of a money economy.
32The Crusades and the Wider World The ReconquistaMoors- Muslims from North Africa who conquered most of present day Spain in the 700s.Christian Kingdoms started expanding and taking over Muslim lands, starting the Reconquista.Over the next 200 years, Christian cities moved southward and in 1140 established the Kingdom of Portugal.
33The Crusades and the Wider World By 1300, Christians had taken over the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) but Muslim influence remained very strong.1469- Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married and united the state of Spain and completed the Reconquista in 1492.Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to impose their beliefs on the diverse culture of Spain, so they began Inquisition to convert Jews and Muslims to Christianity or they would die.
34Quiz Study Guide Vocabulary- Crusades Holy Land Pope Urban II Ferdinand and IsabellaReconquistaInquisition
35Quiz Study GuideWhere was the Byzantine Empire? What was it before it was the Byzantine Empire?What was Pope Urban II’s reason (s) for starting the Crusades?What happened in Constantinople during the 4th Crusade?What were Ferdinand and Isabella’s religious policies called? What did they do?
36Learning and Culture Flourish Section 4Learning and Culture Flourish
37Learning and Culture Flourish Medieval Universities EmergeImproved economic and political conditions during the High Middle Ages.Education became importantCathedral Schools became the first universities.Specialty schools began to show.Life was tough with poor facilities and students had to memorize lectures.
38Learning and Culture Flourish A bachelor’s degree took 3-6 years and a master’s degree took several years more.Women could not receive a university education but learned from convents.Muslims translated many works of Greek thinkers.Sparked a learning revolution.Scholasticism- Using reason to support beliefs.
39Learning and Culture Flourish Thomas Aquinas- said faith and reason existed in harmony and led to the truth that God rules.Science and Math made little progress because they didn’t go with Church teachings.Adopted Hindu-Arabic numerals instead of Roman numerals.
40Learning and Culture Flourish Medieval LiteratureWritings appeared in vernacular, or everyday language.People began writing oral traditions.Dante Alighieri- The Divine ComedyHis journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven.Geoffrey Chaucer- The Canterbury TalesCharacters tell tales on their way to Saint Thomas Becket’s tomb.
41Learning and Culture Flourish Architecture1140-Gothic style with flying buttresses or stone supports outside the building.High thinner walls for stained glass windows.Stone sculptures became popular as decoration.Altarpieces-symbolizes religious ideasIllumination-decorating books with brilliant colors
43Time of Crisis The Black Death (1347) Bubonic Plague- spread by fleas from rats.Became an epidemicCame from rats who infested Chinese cities in the early 1300s. (35 million dead)Traders from Europe to Asia brought disease back to Europe.There was no solution to the diseasePeople tried magic or thought it was God’s will.
44Time of Crisis Upheaval in the Church Life began to break down Production died as the population droppedInflation surged as healthy workers demanded more moneySocial and economic unrest lasted for over 100 years.Upheaval in the ChurchThe church could not provide strong leadership and people lashed out at the pope for his lavish lifestyle and for moving the throne to France
45Time of Crisis 1378-Roman reformers elected a pope to rule from Rome. Created a schism- split in the church.1417-Council in Germany removed power from popes and elected Martin V to rule from Rome.People began fighting against church rule.John Wycliffe-Said the Bible, NOT the church was the truth. Translated Bible into English.Burned at the stake for heresy.
46Time of Crisis The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) England wanted land back from France.Edward III-Son of a French princess, claimed the French throne, starting the war.He wanted control of the English Channel and trade.Joan of Arc-claimed she was sent by God to save France.Charles VII let her lead an army.Led the French to several victories.
47Time of CrisisShe was captured by the English and burned at the stake for witchcraft.She was declared a saint.French fought inspired and with a new weapon called the canon, defeated the English.Throughout the war, English monarchs turned to Parliament for funds for the war, weakening their power.The war caused England to created a large, powerful army, instead of using royal vassals.