Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World 1300-1700 Modern World History. Essential Question What factors allowed Muslim empires to grow and flourish between the years 1300 to."— Presentation transcript:
The Muslim World Modern World History
Essential Question What factors allowed Muslim empires to grow and flourish between the years 1300 to 1700?
Lecture Questions Question: How did the Silk Road help these Middle Eastern societies grow? Question: What factors allowed the Ottomans to grow to be so powerful? Question: What were the major factors that led to the rise and fall of the Mughal Empire?
The Silk Road and Trade in the East
The Silk Road –The Silk Road was an interconnected series of routes through southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel connecting China to the Middle East and from there to Europe Before the discovery of the sea route to India, the Silk Road was the most important connection between the East and West
The Silk Road (Cont’d) –Question: How did the Silk Road help these Middle Eastern societies grow? –Conduit not only for goods but also for the transmission of knowledge and ideas between east and west i.e., Buddhism spread from India to China along it –The Middle East served as the middle ground making it the prime location to trade at majority of trade had ended by the 1300’s Geography allowed it to grow
Two Major Empires The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) The Mughal Empire (India)
The Ottoman Empire –Anatolia (Turkey) was settled by nomadic, militaristic Turks that were pushed out of Central Asia by the Mongols starting in the 1200’s formed military societies under the leadership of an Emir and raided territories of the “infidels” or non-Muslims (sound familiar?) Success was largely based on use of gunpowder –The Ottomans tried to act kindly toward the people they conquered, by ruling through local officials, and often improved peasant’s livesOttomans Osman I, the first Emir
Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion –Mehmet II (the Conqueror) achieved the most dramatic feat in Ottoman history by conquering Constantinople in 1451conquering Constantinople Ends Christian Byzantine Empire and threatens Christianity in Western Europe –Selim captured Mecca and Medina, the two holiest cities in Islam, along with Cairo, Egypt--the intellectual center of the Muslim world –Suleiman I (the Lawgiver),Suleiman I (the Lawgiver), Selim’s son helped the Ottomans reach their greatest size, including much of Europe and his power was only rivaled by the most powerful European monarch The Hagia Sophia
Ottoman Social Structure –a military state with a highly intricate bureaucracy The sultan’s slaves were janissaries, or young Christian boys of conquered Christian lands janissaries –highly trained, elite fighters that were at the heart of the Ottoman war machine »What advantage did this serve? –The Ottomans granted freedom of worship, particularly to Christians and Jews Young Greek boys being converted to Islam and becoming Janissaries
Ottoman Cultural Achievements –Ottoman leaders followed Islamic law, which covered most social matters –Suleiman simplified taxation and reduced the government bureaucracy, which made life better –Art, architecture, and literature also flourished, especially under Suleiman Suleiman’s Mosque
The Decline of the Ottomans –Suleiman set up the eventual downfall of the empire by choosing a weak heir Spain and Italy destroyed Selim’s Turkish fleet in 1571, limiting their military influence Massive instability and weak, ignorant Sultans resulted from power play for throne Although the power of the Ottomans declined, it wasn’t until the 20th century and World War I that it officially crumbled –Question: What factors allowed the Ottomans to grow to be so powerful?
The Mughals –“Mughals” were Muslim people who invaded India from the NorthMughals –Much like European explorers/invaders of the time, they used a mix of religion, wealth, and military glory as justification for actions Rejoicing at birth of Prince Salim (Jahangir)
The Mughals –Delhi eventually became the capital of a loose new empire of Turkish warlords called the Delhi Sultanate 33 different Sultans ruled the divided territory between the 13th and 16th centuries Rejoicing at birth of Prince Salim (Jahangir)
Mughal Rulers –The empire was eventually unified in 1494 by Babar, an 11-year-old boy built up an army and laid the groundwork for the Mughal Empire –Babar led 12,000 troops to victory against an army of 100,000 commanded by the Sultan of Delhi established capital at Kabul (present capital of Afghanistan) Babar watching his gardeners at work
The Golden Age of Akbar Akbar was a Muslim and he firmly defended religious freedomAkbar “His aim was to achieve a Hindu-Muslim equilibrium based on the brotherhood of mankind with no one religion holding the ultimate truth” –Islam –Hindu –Jain –Sikh –(Christian…extreme minority) Akbar
The Golden Age of Akbar –More tolerant of Hindu pilgrims –appointed a Spanish Jesuit Catholic monk to tutor his second son –Because of the mixture of cultures and languages during Akbar’s reign, came a new language, Urdu, which was a mixture of Arabic, Persian and Hindi (official language of modern day Pakistan) –Art and literature also flourished during Akbar’s reign Akbar
Jahangir and Nur Jahan –Jahangir was Akbar’s son, and succeeded him as ruler Most of the affairs of the government were run by his wife Nur Jahan though, because he was such a weak ruler –Rejected Akbar’s religious tolerance by attacking Sikhs Jahangir
Shah Jahan –Shah Jahan had two main passions: beautiful buildings and his wife Mumtaz Mahal Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to their 14th child, so the Taj Mahal was built as her tombTaj Mahal Cost of building angered many of his people
Expansion Campaign for the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent = Strained relations between Hindus and Muslims = Social unrest
Aurangzeb Aurangzeb rigidly enforced Islamic laws and tried to erase all of the gains the Hindus had made under Akbar Uprisings with the Hindus and the Sikhs over intolerance and high taxes were a constant problem More fighting = more taxes for non-Muslims = even more fighting Aurangzeb
The Decline of the Mughals –Wars and extravagant buildings and palaces, made empire economically weak –Western traders from Portugal, the Netherlands, England and France were slowly building their own power in the region, and eventually would control much of the empire Question: What were the major factors that led to the rise and fall of the Mughal Empire?
Essential Question What factors allowed Muslim empires to grow and flourish between the years 1300 to 1700? –You are to write a 3 paragraph essay answering the prompt above. 1 st paragraph- Introduction and thesis that answers the prompt 2 nd paragraph- Topic Sentence (goes with your thesis) 2 different examples that proves your topic and commentary and conclusion 3 rd paragraph-Topic Sentence (goes with your thesis) 2 different examples that proves your topic and commentary and conclusion