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THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1300-1700 *Located in Asia Minor.

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Presentation on theme: "THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1300-1700 *Located in Asia Minor."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1300-1700 *Located in Asia Minor

2 BYZANTIUM RENAMED Byzantium  Greek city-state renamed Constantinople in 330 A.D. –location amazing for trade! Became capital city of Byzantine Empire – trade continued, cultural diffusion was immense

3 CRUSADERS & TURKS FIGHT Crusades fought in Byzantine & invasions by Turks & Mongols common by 13 th Century Turkish people loyal to their tribes & clans, but not to a central government ◦ Wanted to take down Crusaders & break up the Empire to take over

4 GHAZIS Many Anatolian Turks saw themselves as GHAZIS – warriors for Islam (like Crusaders) Followed strict code of conduct Raided territories Muslim (believed in Islam)

5 OSMAN & OTTOMANS OSMAN  most successful ghazi & a Muslim His followers  OTTOMANS Attempts to build unified empire by conquering & controlling lands in Anatolia (Turkey) Uses gunpowder Among 1 st to use cannons & muskets

6 ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF OSMAN Officially takes over Byzantium area & establishes OTTOMAN EMPIRE in 1299 Kind ruler to those he conquered  Allowed local rulers to remain in place Improved lives of peasants Protected religious preferences – follow your own religion Taxed people fairly (even non-Muslims) Rulers called SULTANS – “one with power”

7 RISE OF TIMUR THE LAME (TAMERLANE) TIMUR THE LAME: warrior from Asia Conquered Russia, Persia, northern India, & burned Baghdad to ground Butchered people in New Delhi & made pyramid of skulls Halted expansion of Ottoman Empire until 1405

8 MEHMET II Timur’s son, MEHMET II new sultan 1451 - builds fleet & massive army to attack Constantinople (wanted control of Bosporus Strait for trade & prosperity) 1453 – captured Constantinople & renamed it ISTANBUL  new capital of their empireISTANBUL “Give me Constantinople!”

9 ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF MEHMET II Mehmet now called MEHMET THE CONQUEROR HAGIA SOPHIA (famous church) became a mosque Islam religion became unifying force BUT religious toleration encouraged & diverse population inhabited the city


11 SELIM THE GRIM Overthrew father & murdered brothers Killed all nephews & own kids, but 1 son Crazy guy, but effective! Defeated Safavids of Persia & conquered Mecca, Medina, & Cairo (holy cities & intellectual cities) ◦ Happened at same time Cortez takes over Aztecs

12 SULEIMAN I 1520-1566 – Suleiman (“the lawgiver”) – built strong empire militarily, economically, & socially – GOLDEN AGE Gained more land in eastern Mediterranean, northern African ports, trade routes inside Africa, & central Europe Efficient government structure w/social organization (held for 600 years!)

13 SULEIMAN’S EMPIRE 20,000 personal slaves 30,000 JANISSARIES: forces of people from conquered Christian territories DEVSHIRME policy: training boys as soldiers

14 SULEIMAN’S ACHIEVEMENTS Freedom of worship Binding the Ottoman Empire together Simplified taxation system Reduced government interference (bureacracy) “Renaissance Man” Art & Literature flourished

15 SELIM II Suleiman killed best son & drove away another  3 rd incompetent son, SELIM II inherited throne Ran corrupt government & it continued in family through generations Defeated militarily in 1571 by Spain & Italy

16 WHAT HAPPENED TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE? Became customary to kill off good sons & cut off rest from education  produced long line of weak rulers & ruined empire Empire crumbled slowly & finally dissolved with creation of Turkey after World War I

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