Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World Expands"— Presentation transcript:
1The Muslim World Expands Ch. 18The Muslim World Expands
2The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire Section 1The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire
3Turks Move into Byzantium GhazisWarriors for islamLeader/commanderEmirFormed military societiesStrict Islamic code of conduct
4Turks Move into Byzantium OsmanMost successful ghaziCalled Othman by westernersOttomanFollowersBuilt small Muslim state in Anatolia
5Turks Move into Byzantium Timur the LameFrom Samarkand(Central Asia)Interrupted the rise of the Ottoman empireRuthless warrior/conqueror
6Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Mehmed IITook Constantinople w/ cannonsNow call Mehmed the ConquerorTalented rulerbrilliant warriorOpened Constantinople to new people w/ many religions and backgroundsRebuilt the city; called it Istanbul
7Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Selim the GrimMoved through Syria, Palestine and North AfricaAccountable for Mecca and MedinaAquired Cairo (intellectual center of the Muslim world)
8Suleyman the Lawgiver Ottoman Empire Reached it’s peak under Suleyman Suleyman the magnificentHow westerners referred to himGreat military leader
9Suleyman the Lawgiver Social organization Simplified and limited taxes Systematized and reduced government bureaucracy
10Suleyman the Lawgiver Social organization Devshirme Army uses devshirme—drafts boys from conquered landsTrains 30,000 elite soldiers—janissaries—loyal only to the sultanDisciplinedHeart of the Ottoman war machine
11Suleyman the Lawgiver Social organization Communities Millets (nations)System kept conflict among people of various religions to a minimum
12Suleyman the Lawgiver Cultural Flowering Painters and poets Suleyman’s broad interests lead to flourishing of arts, learningPainters and poetsLooked to Persia and Arabia for modelsWork used foreign influences to express original Ottoman ideas in Turkish styles
13Suleyman the Lawgiver Empire Declines Slowly Suleyman kills one son and exiles anotherThird son inherits throne but rules weaklyLater sultans kill their brothers and leave theirsons uneducated• Long line of weak sultans leads to empire’seventual fall
16Safavids Members of an Islamic religious brotherhood Isma’il Shi’a warriorBegan to seize most of what is now Iran
17Safavids Isma’il Took the title of Shah recognized Shi’a Islam as the state religionEnraged the OttomansDestroyed the Sunni population of Baghdad
18Safavid Golden Age Reformed aspects of military and civilian life Encouraged cultural blendingEstablished relations with European nationsSummoned artisans to the Safavid EmpireIndustry and art thrived
19Safavid Golden Age Encouraged cultural blending Artistic collaborationsGave rise to beautiful artwork that decorated places in IsfahanPersian carpetsVital result of Western influence on the SafavidsHigh demand
23Early History of the Mughals BaburInherited a kingdomArea around Uzbekistan and TajikistanTaken away by elders; moved southHow did the Mughal Empirebegin?Starting in the 600s, India went through a long,unsettled period. Nomads from central Asia invadedthe area and created many small kingdoms. Inthe 700s, Muslims arrived on the scene. This begana long history of fighting with the Hindus who hadlived in India for centuries.After about 300 years, a group of Muslim Turksconquered a region around the city of Delhi. Theyset up a new empire there. They treated theHindus in their area as conquered peoples. Theirrule was brought to an end in 1398.A little over a hundred years later, a new leadernamed Babur raised an army and began to winlarge parts of India. He had many talents. He wasa lover of poetry and gardens. He was also an excellentgeneral. His empire was called the MughalEmpire because he and his families were related tothe Mongols.1. Who was Babur?
24Akbar’s Golden Age Akbar (Great) Babur’s grandson Powerful military and political leadercombined a land of more than 100 million peopleMore than most of Europe sharedThe Golden Age of Akbar(pages 517–518)Who was Akbar?Babur’s grandson was Akbar. His name means“Greatest One.” He ruled with great wisdom andfairness for almost 40 years.Akbar was a Muslim. However, he believedstrongly that people should be allowed to follow thereligion they choose. Both Hindus and Muslimsworked in the government. He hired people in hisgovernment based on their ability and not theirreligion.Akbar ruled fairly. He ended the tax that Hindupilgrims had to pay. He also ended the tax that allnon-Muslims had to pay. To raise money, he taxedpeople on a percentage of the food they grew. Thismade it easier for peasants to pay the tax. His landpolicy was less wise. He gave much land to governmentofficials. However, when they died he took itback. As a result, workers did not see any point incaring for the land.
25Akbar’s Golden Age Akbar Muslim Continued the Islamic tradition of religious freedomArts, architecture, and literature flourishedAkbar ruled fairly. He ended the tax that Hindupilgrims had to pay. He also ended the tax that allnon-Muslims had to pay. To raise money, he taxedpeople on a percentage of the food they grew. Thismade it easier for peasants to pay the tax. His landpolicy was less wise. He gave much land to governmentofficials. However, when they died he took itback. As a result, workers did not see any point incaring for the land.
26Aurangzeb’s Reign Mughal holding expanded to their greatest size Oppressive ruler; levied high taxesMany died from famine while he waged warLead to his demiseIntolerant of non-Muslim religionsHe had a strong, well-equipped army thathelped him win and keep control of more lands.His empire held about 100 million people—morethan lived in all of Europe at the time.During Akbar’s reign, his policy of blending differentcultures produced two new languages. Thelanguages were blends of several languages. Onewas Hindi, which is widely spoken in India today.The other was Urdu. It is now the official languageof Pakistan. The empire became famous for its art,literature, and architecture. The best example ofthis art was small, highly detailed, colorful picturescalled miniatures. He also sponsored the buildingof a new capital city.2. What are some examples of Akbar’s policy of fairrule?Akbar’s Successors (pages 518–521)Who ruled after Akbar?After Akbar’s death in 1605, his son Jahangir, tookcontrol of the empire. During his reign, the realpower was his wife, Nur Jahan. She plotted withone son to overthrow another son. She had a bitterpolitical battle with the Sikhs, members of a separate,nonviolent religion. That group became thetarget of attacks by the government.The next ruler was Shah Jahan. He too chosenot to follow Akbar’s policy of religious toleration.Shah Jahan was a great patron of the arts and builtmany beautiful buildings. One was the famous TajMahal, a tomb for his wife. His ambitious buildingplans required high taxes, though. People sufferedunder his rule.His son Aurangzeb ruled for almost 50 years.He made the empire grow once again with newconquests. His rule also brought new problems. Hewas a devout Muslim, and he punished Hindus anddestroyed their temples. This led to a rebellion thattook part of his empire. At the same time, the Sikhswon control of another part of the empire.3. How did Aurangzeb deal with Hindus?
27Decline of the Dynasty How did the Mughal Empire lose its power? Aurangzeb used up the empire’s resources. Peopledid not feel loyalty to him. As the power of the stateweakened, the power of local lords grew. Soonthere was only a patchwork of independent states.There continued to be a Mughal emperor, but hewas only a figurehead, not a ruler with any realpower. As the Mughal empire was rising andfalling, Western traders were building power. Theyarrived in India just before Babur did. Shah Jahanlet the English build a trading fort in Madras.Aurangzeb handed them the port of Bombay. Thisgave India’s next conquerors a foothold in India.4. How did the Mughal Empire change after Akbar?