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1500-1700 (India). HISTORY OF INDIA IN 1400S  Lush country  many cities & temples  Hindu lower classes labored for Muslim/Hindu masters  Gupta Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "1500-1700 (India). HISTORY OF INDIA IN 1400S  Lush country  many cities & temples  Hindu lower classes labored for Muslim/Hindu masters  Gupta Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 (India)

2 HISTORY OF INDIA IN 1400S  Lush country  many cities & temples  Hindu lower classes labored for Muslim/Hindu masters  Gupta Empire collapsing  1 st Ottomans (Timur the Lame) conquers New Delhi, then…  Huge clash between Hindus (India) & Muslims (Ottomans)  Hindus won  New Delhi is destroyed and weak

3 BABUR  1494 – 11 yr. old boy, BABUR, inherits kingdom in N. India  But elders drove him away  He moved south & later set groundwork for MUGHAL EMPIRE  Strong & sensitive leader; “Renaissance Man”  Defeated massive RAJPUT army (“sons of kings” or Turkish warlords & moved into New Delhi  Area weak, so nomadic people invade India, called Mughals or “Mongols” (Muslim)

4 AKBAR: THE GOLDEN AGE  Grandson of Babur; aka “Great One”  1556 – 1605: comes to power, gains land & builds a unified Mughal Empire – Golden Age  He is a Muslim

5 AKBAR’S ACCOMPLISHMENTS  Rules with religious tolerance  Abolishes special taxes on non-Muslims  Bureaucracy of educated officials rules efficiently  Reorganized taxes to represent % of crops (more $)  War-like – armies are equipped with heavy artillery  Employs some potential enemies

6 AKBAR’S ACCOMPLISHMENTS CONTINUED  Cultural diffusion – many cultures/languages combined  Upper class spoke Persian  Common people spoke Hindi (Persian & local language) ; Army people spoke Urdu (Arabic, Persian & Hindi)  book illustrations – miniatures were detailed, colorful stories  library & schools  architecture – massive, graceful, decorated with stonework of Hindu themes

7 JAHANGIR  Akbar dies in 1605; his son rules  aka “Grasper of the World”  weak ruler & relied on his wife, NUR JAHEN  Raises taxes & neglects people  Persecutes Sikhs  religion that blends Buddhism, Hinduism, & mysticism  Ended religious toleration

8 SHAH JAHAN  Secured throne through assassination of all rivals  Greatest accomplishment: built TAJ MAHAL, tomb for his deceased wife, Mumtaz Mahal  BUT country suffered because spent so much time & money to build it  increased taxes

9 TAJ MAHAL

10 AURANGZEB  Shah Jahan sick, so 3 rd son, AURANGZEB, takes throne (kills brother & puts S. Jahan in prison)  EXPANDS MUGHAL EMPIRE TO ITS GREATEST SIZE  BUT empire is weak because of oppression of his people (harsh laws & destroys temples)

11 EMPIRE’S DECLINE & DECAY  Long line of weak rulers  Mughal Emperor now only wealthy figurehead  Empire no longer united because of corruption; now bunch of independent states

12 EUROPEANS MOVE IN TO TRADE  Europeans (Portuguese, Dutch, French, & English) had trading outposts in Mughal Empire the whole time  Mughals not threatened by them  Aurangzeb gave them port of Bombay  big mistake, BIG important city for trade in the future.  TRADE: British wanted Indian textiles, mostly COTTON & SPICES

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