2 Vocabulary I Ottoman: Followers of Osman Sultan: Overlord/One with Power: Title for rulers of the Ottoman EmpireSuleiman the Lawgiver: Leader of the Ottoman Empire through its Golden AgeJanissary: Elite solider of the Ottoman EmpireMughal: Nomads who invaded the Indian Subcontinent in the 16thAkbar: “Great One” leader of the Mughal Empire during its Golden AgeTaj Mahal: Beautiful tomb in Agra, India. Built by Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal
4 Turks Settle in Christian Byzantium Osman Establishes a StateBeginning in 1300, Ottoman Turks began to use gunpowder and cannonsBy 1361, the Ottomans had conquered most of ByzantiumPowerful Sultans Spur Dramatic ExpansionMehmet II Conquers ConstantinopleCity falls after five week siege, renamed Istanbul, became Islamic capitalConstantinople 1,000,000 vs. 50,000 (population decrease)Why did Mehmet II want Constantinople?Mankind: The Story of All of USEffects of the Turks taking over Constantinople
5 Suleiman the Lawgiver (Magnificent) The Empire Reaches its LimitsCaptured southeastern Europe, (Belgrade)Finally stopped at ViennaHighly Structured Social OrganizationSultan was at the top, backed by Islamic converts called janissariesFreedom of religion was given to Christians and JewsMany cultural achievements were made, including famous mosquesCreative Period like the RenaissanceArt, Architecture, Math, ScienceLaw Code: Criminal/Civil Laws
6 Main Ideas How did the Ottomans expand their empire? Why was Suleiman called the Lawgiver?How powerful was the Ottoman Empire compared to other empires of the time?
8 Early History of the Mughal Empire Ongoing ConflictsFrom 600 to 1000 AD, Arab Muslims conquered more and more Hindu territoryConstant WarfareBabur founds an EmpireIn 1526, he defeated the Sultan of Dehli, founding the Mughal Empire11 years old (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)Swept into India
9 The Golden Age of Akbar (Grandson of Babur) A Liberal RulerThough a Muslim, he strictly enforced religious freedomA Military ConquerorExpanded the Empire into central India, had 100 million people under his controlSocial freedom for jobsIncome based tax systemA Flowering of CultureArt became important, especially paintingLiteracy increased, and new advances in architecture were made
10 Akbar’s Successors (1605-1707) Achievements of SuccessorsExpanded Mughal Empire to include almost all of IndianProblemsEnded religious toleration of non-MuslimsDrained resources through constant warfareHarsh rule turned people against Mughal rulersPower of local lords and foreign merchants grew
11 Shah Jahan Akbar’s grandson Loved two things: Beautiful Buildings/Wife (Mumtz Mahal)Arranged MarriageDied after 14th birthOrdered a tomb, “as beautiful as she was beautiful”1,000 elephants used20,000 workers22 yearsChanging lights=women’s mood change?Marble, jewels, collapsing?