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Chapter 18: The Muslim World Expands

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1 Chapter 18: The Muslim World Expands 1300-1700

2 Vocabulary I Ottoman: Followers of Osman
Sultan: Overlord/One with Power: Title for rulers of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Lawgiver: Leader of the Ottoman Empire through its Golden Age Janissary: Elite solider of the Ottoman Empire Mughal: Nomads who invaded the Indian Subcontinent in the 16th Akbar: “Great One” leader of the Mughal Empire during its Golden Age Taj Mahal: Beautiful tomb in Agra, India. Built by Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal

3 The Ottomans Build A Vast Empire
Chapter 18:1

4 Turks Settle in Christian Byzantium
Osman Establishes a State Beginning in 1300, Ottoman Turks began to use gunpowder and cannons By 1361, the Ottomans had conquered most of Byzantium Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Mehmet II Conquers Constantinople City falls after five week siege, renamed Istanbul, became Islamic capital Constantinople 1,000,000 vs. 50,000 (population decrease) Why did Mehmet II want Constantinople? Mankind: The Story of All of US Effects of the Turks taking over Constantinople

5 Suleiman the Lawgiver (Magnificent)
The Empire Reaches its Limits Captured southeastern Europe, (Belgrade) Finally stopped at Vienna Highly Structured Social Organization Sultan was at the top, backed by Islamic converts called janissaries Freedom of religion was given to Christians and Jews Many cultural achievements were made, including famous mosques Creative Period like the Renaissance Art, Architecture, Math, Science Law Code: Criminal/Civil Laws

6 Main Ideas How did the Ottomans expand their empire?
Why was Suleiman called the Lawgiver? How powerful was the Ottoman Empire compared to other empires of the time?

7 The Mughal Empire In India
Chapter: 18:3

8 Early History of the Mughal Empire
Ongoing Conflicts From 600 to 1000 AD, Arab Muslims conquered more and more Hindu territory Constant Warfare Babur founds an Empire In 1526, he defeated the Sultan of Dehli, founding the Mughal Empire 11 years old (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) Swept into India

9 The Golden Age of Akbar (Grandson of Babur)
A Liberal Ruler Though a Muslim, he strictly enforced religious freedom A Military Conqueror Expanded the Empire into central India, had 100 million people under his control Social freedom for jobs Income based tax system A Flowering of Culture Art became important, especially painting Literacy increased, and new advances in architecture were made

10 Akbar’s Successors (1605-1707)
Achievements of Successors Expanded Mughal Empire to include almost all of Indian Problems Ended religious toleration of non-Muslims Drained resources through constant warfare Harsh rule turned people against Mughal rulers Power of local lords and foreign merchants grew

11 Shah Jahan Akbar’s grandson
Loved two things: Beautiful Buildings/Wife (Mumtz Mahal) Arranged Marriage Died after 14th birth Ordered a tomb, “as beautiful as she was beautiful” 1,000 elephants used 20,000 workers 22 years Changing lights=women’s mood change? Marble, jewels, collapsing?

12 Taj Mahal

13 Main Ideas How did Akbar demonstrate tolerance in his empire?
Why was the Taj Mahal built?

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