Presentation on theme: "Islamic Empires Interactions and Conflict. Importance of Trade By the 15 th Century, technological and scientific advances had been exchanged among the."— Presentation transcript:
Importance of Trade By the 15 th Century, technological and scientific advances had been exchanged among the cultures of the world: Paper, the compass, silk, & porcelain (China) Textiles, numerical system (India & Ottomans) Medicine, astronomy, and mathematics (Mideast, Africa, and Asia)
The Ottomans The Ottoman Empire lasted for over 600 years (13 th to 19 th Centuries) Fell in 1922 (after WWI) The Ottoman Empire was concentrated in Asia Minor on the Anatolian Peninsula. It emerged as a political and economic power following the fall of Constantinople (1453), which was renamed Istanbul.
The Ottomans The Ottomans expanded their empire into Southwest Asia (Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, and parts of Saudi Arabia) Southern Europe (Balkan Peninsula: Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, and Albania) Parts of North Africa. The Ottomans ruled Christians, Jews, and Muslims but ISLAM (Sunni) was the unifying religion.
The Ottomans The Ottoman Empire benefited from its location: controlled most east/west trade. The Empire produced mostly coffee and ceramics. The spices, silks, timber, gunpowder, technological advances passed through their empire on the way to Europe, which made them rich. Why are the Ottomans Important?????
Important People Osman (1300-1326) Warrior for Islam = ghazis West called him Othman – Ottomans named after him Gunpowder = first people to use cannons and carried muskets * Ottoman Rule ~ kind ~ appointed local Sultans ~ improved lives of peasants ~ non-Muslims pay tax
Important People Timur the Lame (Mongol) Technically conquered the Ottoman Empire, but was not interested in Anatolia – Osman’s power grew Conquered Russia and Persia Burned Baghdad to the ground Died on way to China Mehmet II (the Conqueror) Son of Timur Captured Constantinople from Byzantine Christians Renamed Istanbul
Turning point in history: Capture of Constantinople
Important People Selim the Grim (1512) Overthrew his father and killed his brothers Conqurered Egypt and Saudi Arabia Suleiman I (1520) “The Magnificent” Selim’s son Empire reaches height Ruled for 46 years Empire fell – corruption Suleiman video
Cultural Achievements Cultural Diffusion – blending of cultures Astronomy and math Schools Art and Literature Spices, Silk (from China) Used Gunpowder (from China)
Political Characteristics Vizier – head administrator Janissaries – elite military group, which gained great power “Devshirme” – Young Christian boys, from conquered territories, became slaves to Sultan Learned Turkish and converted to Islam Served as bureaucrats or infantrymen in army
Fall of Ottoman Began to decline in 17 th century – too large Fall of Ottoman Empire Crash Course
Safavid The Safavid Empire consisted of present day Iran and parts of Afghanistan and Russia. Ruled by a Shah or emperor. Islam (Shiite) was the unifying religion. Caught between the Ottomans and the Mughals and thus has limited influence.
Cultural Blending: Safavid Members of an Islamic brotherhood joined Shi’a Muslims Isma’il (1499) Leader of army – 14yrs old Fought Ottomans (Sunni Muslim) Destroyed Sunni population in Baghdad Selim the Grim responded by killing nearly 40,000 Shi’a Muslims Fighting still continues today Fighting today Fighting still continues today
Safavid Golden Age 1588 Shah Abbas “Abbas the Great” (1588-1629) Blend of Persian, Ottoman, and Arab worlds Reformed army (2 armies; 1 Persian and 1 Ottoman) Reformed government Punished corruption Created good relationships with Europe and China Collapse under internal attacks * Persian rugs
The Mughals Descendants of the Mongols, Muslim Mughal (Mogul) rulers of India and surrounding regions. Babur – descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan conquered Delhi Location of their Empire: Northern India Parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.
Founded Golden Age (1556-1605) Akbar “Great One” Religious Freedom Blended cultures – Islam and Hinduism Sikhism – new religion, rejects Caste System Attempted to outlaw the practice of sati Built Military – lots of fire power Language – Hindi = mix of Persian and local Shah Jahan Built Taj Mahal (Tomb!) Built it after wife died (Mumtaz Mahal) She died after giving birth to 14 th child 20,000 workers – 22 years = much suffering
The Mughals Contributions Spread Islam into India The Mughals ruled an empire of mostly Hindu. Like the Ottomans they built many impressive temples and shrines. Taj Mahal Their culture was a blend of Hindu and Muslim. They carried on an extensive trade with the Europeans after their arrival during the late 15 th Century.
The Mughals The Portuguese, British, and Dutch (Netherlands) all competed for the Indian Ocean trade. These Europeans (French, Dutch, Portuguese) arrived in India in the late 14 th century-set up trading posts. Western Coast with local rulers of the Mughal Empire. The British gained a monopoly by the 1600s. Cotton and Indian textiles were the primary product.