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Sport Books Publisher1 Motor Skills: Learning and Acquisition Processes Chapter 18.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Books Publisher1 Motor Skills: Learning and Acquisition Processes Chapter 18."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Books Publisher1 Motor Skills: Learning and Acquisition Processes Chapter 18

2 Sport Books Publisher2 Outline: Developing Movement Intelligence Stages of Learning a Skill Feedback for Skill Learning Transfer of Motor Learning

3 Sport Books Publisher3 Developing Movement Intelligence

4 Sport Books Publisher4 Movement Intelligence Following factors affect development of movement intelligence: –Starting at young age –Learning time –Instructor –Equipment –Progression

5 Sport Books Publisher5 Starting the Learning Process at a Young Age As early as the preschool years Basic skills = basis for other activities –Walking, throwing, catching Skill should be taught correctly the first time to avoid development of bad habits

6 Sport Books Publisher6 Providing Sufficient Learning Time Without physical experience, skills cannot be effectively learned and maintained Sufficient time must be allotted for participating in PA’s that enhance movement skills

7 Sport Books Publisher7 Being Taught By Qualified Instructors Instructors, physical educators, and coaches must be properly trained and have experience with teaching PA This means having trained physical educators fill such positions, rather than math or music teachers who do not have the necessary background

8 Sport Books Publisher8 The Use of Quality Equipment Safe, appropriate, and well maintained –e.g., scaled down equipment for children Lower basketball hoops Smaller soccer nets Lighter baseball bats Effectiveness of teaching movement skills is directly related to the quality of equipment

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Following the Right Progression Teaching skills in an organized manner that makes skills easier to grasp and learn

10 Sport Books Publisher10 Stages of Learning a Skill

11 Sport Books Publisher11 Three general stages of motor learning have been identified Each stage consists of: –Changes that occur as motor learning takes place –Important features unique to each stage

12 Sport Books Publisher12 Cognitive or Acquisition Stage Begins when task first introduced Learner cognitively determines: –What the particular skill involves –Performance goals required to perform the skill Instructions: –Are verbally transmitted (verbal stage) –Serve to convey the general concept of the skill Self-talk and verbal reminders facilitate learning Performance: slow, jerky, and awkward

13 Sport Books Publisher13 Associative or Stabilization Stage Focused on performing and refining the skill Concentration is directed towards smaller details (e.g., timing) Performance: controlled and consistent Rapid performance improvements (somewhat slower than fist stage) Diminished self-talk

14 Sport Books Publisher14 Autonomous or Application Stage Performance: automatic and very proficient Attention demands: Performance improvements: –Slow –Less obvious (e.g., reduced mental effort, improved style, reduced anxiety)

15 Sport Books Publisher15 Feedback for Skill Learning

16 Sport Books Publisher16 Information feedback: “the information that occurs as a result of a movement” Some information is received during the movement and some is provided as a result of the movement Feedback is one of the strongest factors that controls the effectiveness of learning

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Feedback Classification Information Feedback Intrinsic Feedback Extrinsic Feedback Knowledge of Performance Knowledge of Results Knowledge of Performance Knowledge of Results Vision Audition Touch Muscle Feeling. Vision Audition Touch Muscle Feeling. Basketball Golf Tennis service ace Darts. Instructor/Coach Parent/Friend Video replay Photographs Radar gun Stopwatch Lap times Distance jumped Height jumped Judge’s score.

18 Sport Books Publisher18 Intrinsic Feedback Information that is provided as a natural consequence of performing an action Knowledge of performanceof results Arm extension Watching the when hitting the tennis ball land tennis ballin the opponent’s court

19 Sport Books Publisher19 Extrinsic Feedback Information that is provided to the learner by somebody else or some artificial means following a performance outcome Provides information above and beyond what is naturally available to the learner (augmented feedback) Can be controlled; when, how, how often…

20 Sport Books Publisher20 Extrinsic Feedback cont’d Knowledge of results –Information about the degree of success Not effective when outcome is obvious Important when outcome is less obvious Knowledge of performance –Information about the execution of a completed movement –Example: “took your eye off the ball,” “swing was a little late,” etc.

21 Sport Books Publisher21 Motivational Properties of Feedback Extrinsic feedback serves to motivate the learner Error correction Therefore, a skilled instructor should be able to reinforce correct actions as well as point out errors

22 Sport Books Publisher22 Feedback Can be a Crutch Providing feedback continuously for a long period of time can lead to dependency Occasional feedback tends to enhance learning Various types of feedback that minimize dependency have been identified

23 Sport Books Publisher23 Faded Feedback Benefit: teacher can tailor feedback to respect individual differences LowDegree of skill High High Gradually reduced (faded) Feedback

24 Sport Books Publisher24 Bandwidth Feedback Benefits: 1.Eventually faded feedback occurs 2.Lack of feedback = positive reinforcement 3.Movement consistency develops because learner is not encouraged to change movement on each trial Range of correctness Feedback provided No feedback provided

25 Sport Books Publisher25 Summary Feedback Benefits: 1.Generates movement consistency 2.Avoids overloading the learner Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Trial 4Trial 5Trial 6Trial 7Trial 8Trial 9 Feedback

26 Sport Books Publisher26 When in the Learning Process is Information Feedback Needed Most? Cognitive Associative Autonomous stage stage stage Feedback is vital Faded, bandwidth, or summary feedback Feedback withdrawal

27 Sport Books Publisher27 How Much Feedback is Necessary? Novel tasks –Processing capacity can be easily overloaded –Intense but selective instruction –One important piece of information feedback at a time

28 Sport Books Publisher28 How Precise Should Feedback Be? Descriptive (general) feedback –Indicates something you did, right or wrong –e.g., there was no follow through Prescriptive (precise) feedback –Provides you with precise correction statements about how to improve your movements –e.g., snap your wrist more on the follow through Precise feedback generates far better results Precise feedback generates far better results

29 Sport Books Publisher29 Performance Blocks of Learning Trials Precise Feedback General Encouragement High Low EarlyLate

30 Sport Books Publisher30 What is the Best Timing for Information Feedback? Short-term memory is very susceptible to loss Generally, the greater the delay of information provision the less effect the given information has Therefore, immediate feedback is more beneficial

31 Sport Books Publisher31 Transfer of Motor Learning

32 Sport Books Publisher32 Transfer of learning between two tasks generally increases as the similarity between them increases Types of Transfer: Positive vs. negative Near vs. far

33 Sport Books Publisher33 Positive Transfer e.g., Practicing drills and lead-up games with strong (positive) transfer to the actual game Learning can be positively transferred from practice to game situation when drills are similar in nature to the criterion task

34 Sport Books Publisher34 Negative Transfer Not common Activities that may negatively transfer to the criterion task need to be avoided when performance is critical e.g., playing mini-golf before golf tournament

35 Sport Books Publisher35 Factors Affecting Transfer Positive Transfer Example Negative Transfer Example Movement Response/Patterns e.g., tennis & badminton Racquets Net Similar shot variations Ball vs. birdie Psychomotor Demands e.g., rowing, kayaking, & canoeing Water Dynamic balance Coordination Boat size and level of balance Cognitive Demands e.g., basketball & handball Game purpose Travel on the court Biomotor Demands e.g., sprint & long jump Explosive power No take off and jump in sprinting Psychological Demands Narrow focus of attention in archery and darts Shifting attention in hockey vs. judo and karate

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Near Transfer Desired when the learning goal is a task that is relatively similar to the training task Transfer of learning is specific and closely approximates the ultimate situation e.g., practicing various plays before a volleyball tournament

37 Sport Books Publisher37 Far Transfer Desired when interested in developing more general capabilities for a variety of skills Occurs from one task to another very different task Best applies when beginning to learn a skill e.g., overhand throw  baseball throw, football throw, tennis serve, volleyball spike…

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Transfer Strategies Training machines and stimulators Whole vs. part practice Lead-up activities and drills Mental rehearsal

39 Sport Books Publisher39 Training Machines and Simulators Closely mimic features of real-world task Goal = positive transfer of learning from simulator to the target skill Effectiveness depends on the ability to simulate motor as well as perceptual, conceptual, and biomotor elements

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Whole vs. part practice Part practice –Practicing independent components of motor skill –Eventually, units of a task should transfer to the task as a whole –e.g., gymnastics routine Whole practice –Practicing skill as a whole –e.g., golf swing

41 Sport Books Publisher41 Part Practice Effective for tasks serial in nature and relatively long duration Effective as long as the actions of one part do not interact strongly with the actions of the next part (i.e., independent)

42 Sport Books Publisher42 Whole Practice Used with discrete tasks of short duration where components interact intensely Practicing individual components would change the essence of the skill

43 Sport Books Publisher43 Progressive Part Practice Used to avoid transfer problems due to high levels of interaction among task components Effective for any sequential action; e.g., tennis serve

44 Sport Books Publisher44 Lead-up Activities and Drills 1. Transfer to another target sporting activity –e.g., passing, shooting, dribbling, and faking drills for soccer 2. Improvement of basic abilities –Quickening, balancing, perceptual exercises, etc. –e.g., perceptual motor training

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Mental Rehearsal The process associated with mentally rehearsing the performance of a skill in the absence of any overt physical movement Evidence has demonstrated that mental rehearsal generates positively transferable motor learning Involves constructing model situations and going through the motions of what you will do later Especially beneficial for injured athletes supplement It is a supplement to physical practice

46 Sport Books Publisher46 Designing Effective Practice Conditions of Practice: a) Blocked Practice - a given task is practiced on many consecutive trials before setting about the next task - enables the learners to correct specific problems and refine their skills one at a time - important early in practice when correct habits should be learned b) Random Practice - ordering of tasks is randomized in a way that tasks from different classes are mixed throughout the practice period - random practice is very effective once a skill has become more developed

47 Sport Books Publisher47 Massed Versus Distributed Practice a)Massed Practice -a schedule in which the amount of rest between practice trials is short relative to the trial length -eg. 5 sec of rest for a practice trial lasting 60 secs. b)Distributed Practice -practice that allows for more rest between trials relative to the trial length -the rest period may last as long as the trial itself Reducing the amount of rest between trials will also reduce the amount of time the body and central nervous system have to recover from physical and mental fatigue There is no single optimal practice-rest ratio for all learning tasks

48 Sport Books Publisher48 Grouping for Practice Designed to make learning suitable for everyone involved Should be based on the learners’ skill levels, rather than a subjective determination of their underlying abilities Other factors, such as maturity level, previous experience, and level of physical fitness need to be considered

49 Sport Books Publisher49 Effects of Motivation on Learning Until the learner has been motivated, effective learning is not likely to occur An instructor plays an important role in motivating his students (encouraging learners to set goals, providing excellent demonstrations, or using visual aids ) It’s a Fact !: She who is motivated makes more of an effort during practice, can practice for longer periods of time, and learns more in the end The Law of Effect: Organisms tend to repeat responses that are rewarded and to avoid responses that are not rewarded or punished


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