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Feedback. FEEDBACK intrinsicextrinsic Sensory Feedback Augmented Feedback visual auditory proprioception KR KR KP KP cutaneous.

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Presentation on theme: "Feedback. FEEDBACK intrinsicextrinsic Sensory Feedback Augmented Feedback visual auditory proprioception KR KR KP KP cutaneous."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feedback

2 FEEDBACK intrinsicextrinsic Sensory Feedback Augmented Feedback visual auditory proprioception KR KR KP KP cutaneous

3 Augmented Feedback Info provided learner from external source to supplement movement-produced feedback Info provided learner from external source to supplement movement-produced feedback –Knowledge of Results (KR) –Knowledge of Performance (KP) Purposes of augmented feedback? Purposes of augmented feedback? –Guide –Motivate –Reinforce

4 What do you think - KR or KP? Your foot placement on the beam should be more angled Your foot placement on the beam should be more angled Keep your head down more & eyes on the ball Keep your head down more & eyes on the ball Your fast pitch came in at 92 mph Your fast pitch came in at 92 mph You need to let the weight down more slowly You need to let the weight down more slowly You are shooting high and to the right You are shooting high and to the right

5 Feedback Considerations Is it necessary? Is it necessary? What form or type of feedback should be given? What form or type of feedback should be given? When should it be given? When should it be given? How often should it be given? How often should it be given?

6 Is feedback necessary? Essential? Essential? Not needed ? Not needed ? Enhances learning ? Enhances learning ? Hinders ? Hinders ?

7 Is it necessary? Essential when task-intrinsic feedback not available Essential when task-intrinsic feedback not available Not needed when task-intrinsic feedback sufficient or provided through observation Not needed when task-intrinsic feedback sufficient or provided through observation Enhances learning when fine discrimination between movements needed or multi-limb coordination involved Enhances learning when fine discrimination between movements needed or multi-limb coordination involved Hinders if become over-dependent Hinders if become over-dependent

8 What form should it take? Prioritize knowledge of performance feedback Prioritize knowledge of performance feedback Provide both error-based and correct performance info - when? Provide both error-based and correct performance info - when? –sandwich approach Use descriptive and/or prescriptive - when best? Use descriptive and/or prescriptive - when best? –Associates between errors and corrections

9 What do you think - Descriptive or Prescriptive? Your plant foot is landing too far in front of you Your plant foot is landing too far in front of you When you release the ball, continue to flex your wrist so your fingers are pointing down When you release the ball, continue to flex your wrist so your fingers are pointing down The ball is behind your head when you contact it The ball is behind your head when you contact it Your knee is not reaching full extension Your knee is not reaching full extension Shift your weight forward before stepping Shift your weight forward before stepping

10 How precise should it be? Lets see! Lets see! Less precise for novice vs. intermediate performers Less precise for novice vs. intermediate performers More general info more effective in early stages of learning More general info more effective in early stages of learning As precision increases so too should time to process it As precision increases so too should time to process it

11 How Frequent Should Feedback Be? the more the better??? Not! the more the better??? Not! Increased frequency better for performance while reduced frequency better for retention Increased frequency better for performance while reduced frequency better for retention Various schedules to reduce frequency Various schedules to reduce frequency

12 Fading Frequency Schedule Higher frequency KR provided early in acquisition & reduced in later stages Higher frequency KR provided early in acquisition & reduced in later stages

13 Bandwidth Schedule Feedback only provided if errors exceed certain range Feedback only provided if errors exceed certain range Feedback systematically reduced according to level of proficiency Feedback systematically reduced according to level of proficiency Learner interprets absence of KR as satisfactory performance Learner interprets absence of KR as satisfactory performance

14 Summary Schedule Withholding feedback for given number of trials Withholding feedback for given number of trials Feedback then given for each trial previously performed Feedback then given for each trial previously performed ,2,34,5,67,8,9 10,11,12

15 Summary Schedule Optimal length of interval influenced by task complexity and skill level of learner Optimal length of interval influenced by task complexity and skill level of learner

16 Average Schedule Withholding feedback for given number of trials Withholding feedback for given number of trials Feedback then given as average of performance errors that occurred for trials previously performed Feedback then given as average of performance errors that occurred for trials previously performed ave

17 Learner-Regulated Schedule Learner controls when & how much feedback given Learner controls when & how much feedback given Reduces & individualizes feedback frequency Reduces & individualizes feedback frequency Actively engages learner in learning process Actively engages learner in learning process

18 Basis for Reduced Schedules Guidance Hypothesis Guidance Hypothesis –High frequencies lead to overdependence on external feedback –Low frequencies foster problem-solving & less likely to overload learner

19 Basis for Reduced Schedules Consistency Hypothesis Consistency Hypothesis –High frequencies cause learner to continually adjust performance –Constant short-term corrections prevent development of stable plan of action

20 When should feedback be given? Very short KR delay intervals provide insufficient time for processing movement-related feedback nor allow for error detection/correction activities Very short KR delay intervals provide insufficient time for processing movement-related feedback nor allow for error detection/correction activities Longer delay intervals & error estimation leads to better retention and performance when no feedback available Longer delay intervals & error estimation leads to better retention and performance when no feedback available –Develop self-evaluation skills –Why do you think the ball went to the left? –Do you think your arm came straight down or across your body?


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