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Exercise Science Chapter 19:Motor Learning and Skill Acquisition

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1 Exercise Science Chapter 19:Motor Learning and Skill Acquisition

2 Basic Principles: Motor Learning:
The process by which a person develops, through a combination of physical and psychological factors, the ability to perform a task Root of any motor activity lies in the sensory and nervous systems Motor learning divided into to basic concepts Automatic motor activity: Controlled motor activity: Principle of Individual Differences: Individuals vary widely in terms of how quickly and easily they learn new skills

3 Stages of Motor Learning:
Fitts and Posner’s stages-of-learning model: Cognitive Stage: Basic understanding of task Learner commits relatively large errors; may need specific instruction on how to improve Associative Stage: Learner begins to refine skill Develop awareness of mistakes Effort becomes more consistent Autonomous Stage: Skill becomes “automatic” Aware of mistakes and how to correct them

4 Factors Affecting Skill Development:
Incorrect understanding of the movement Poor physical abilities Poor condition of movement Incorrect application of power Lack of concentration Inappropriate equipment, clothing, or footwear External factors Weather conditions

5 Teaching and Learning a Skill:
Five-step method of skills teaching: Readying Preparatory Work to attain ideal mental and emotional state Imaging Develop “picture” in mind of correct skill execution Focusing “zero” in on skill Executing Learner attempts skill after completing first three stages Evaluating Assess which aspects of skill were successful and which needed improvement

6 The Role of Evaluation:
Feedback provides the learner with information on progress when learning to perform a skill Can assist in performance improvement Two types of feedback: KR feedback Knowledge of results of an action Example: individual working on golf swing can get KR feedback by seeing how far ball travelled after each shot KP feedback Knowledge of performance Example: individual practising golf shot would not be concerned with where ball lands but with the actual swing

7 Skill Categories: Locomotor-Moving Skills:
Body transport Walking, running, skating, etc. Manipulative-Handling Skills: Object manipulation Catching, throwing, etc. Stability-Balancing Skills: Balancing skills Two feet, one foot, etc

8 Classifying Skills: Open Skill:
Performed in an unpredictable environment Requires participants to adapt their movements to changing nature of environment Environmental conditions are in motion Closed Skill: Predictable environment Permits participants to plan movements in advance Environmental conditions are stationary

9 Skills Analysis: Stages of skill observation:
Identify the purpose of the skill: Knowing skill purpose assists observation of skill Break the skill into phases: Preliminary movements Movements needed to get ready for skill Back-swing or recovery movements Movements that take place just before force-producing movements Force-producing movements Movements executed to produce force for impact or propulsion Critical instant Point that determines how effective skill execution will be Follow-through Movements that take place after critical instant

10 Skills Analysis- cont’d
Identify key elements of each phase: Break each phase into observable elements Key elements of each phase generally connected to execution of other skill phases Develop observation plan: Must decide before watching how they are going to perform the observation process Determination of which key elements will be observed Develop scanning strategy to obtain general picture before focusing on specific elements Choose a varied number of positions for observation Determination of how many observations needed

11 Adapting Skill Development:
Shaping Encourages learners to develop “shape” a skill gradually Skill demonstration includes only the most important actions Missing pieces added gradually until whole skill is learned Gradual process Chaining Forward chaining Start at beginning of action Learn first phase, then second phase, then chain the phases together before moving onto the third phase, etc. Backward chaining Begin at end of complex and work backward

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