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Exercise Science Chapter 19:Motor Learning and Skill Acquisition.

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2 Exercise Science Chapter 19:Motor Learning and Skill Acquisition

3 Basic Principles: Motor Learning: The process by which a person develops, through a combination of physical and psychological factors, the ability to perform a task Root of any motor activity lies in the sensory and nervous systems Motor learning divided into to basic concepts ▫Automatic motor activity: ▫ Controlled motor activity: ▫ Principle of Individual Differences:  Individuals vary widely in terms of how quickly and easily they learn new skills

4 Stages of Motor Learning: Fitts and Posner’s stages-of-learning model: ▫ Cognitive Stage:  Basic understanding of task  Learner commits relatively large errors; may need specific instruction on how to improve ▫ Associative Stage:  Learner begins to refine skill  Develop awareness of mistakes  Effort becomes more consistent ▫Autonomous Stage:  Skill becomes “automatic”  Aware of mistakes and how to correct them

5 Factors Affecting Skill Development: Incorrect understanding of the movement Poor physical abilities Poor condition of movement Incorrect application of power Lack of concentration Inappropriate equipment, clothing, or footwear External factors ▫ Weather conditions

6 Teaching and Learning a Skill: Five-step method of skills teaching: Readying ▫Preparatory ▫Work to attain ideal mental and emotional state Imaging ▫Develop “picture” in mind of correct skill execution Focusing ▫“zero” in on skill Executing ▫Learner attempts skill after completing first three stages Evaluating ▫Assess which aspects of skill were successful and which needed improvement

7 The Role of Evaluation: Feedback provides the learner with information on progress when learning to perform a skill ▫ Can assist in performance improvement Two types of feedback: ▫ KR feedback  Knowledge of results of an action  Example: individual working on golf swing can get KR feedback by seeing how far ball travelled after each shot ▫ KP feedback  Knowledge of performance  Example: individual practising golf shot would not be concerned with where ball lands but with the actual swing

8 Skill Categories: Locomotor-Moving Skills: ▫ Body transport  Walking, running, skating, etc. Manipulative-Handling Skills: ▫ Object manipulation  Catching, throwing, etc. Stability-Balancing Skills: ▫ Balancing skills  Two feet, one foot, etc

9 Classifying Skills: Open Skill: Performed in an unpredictable environment Requires participants to adapt their movements to changing nature of environment Environmental conditions are in motion Closed Skill: Predictable environment Permits participants to plan movements in advance Environmental conditions are stationary

10 Skills Analysis: Stages of skill observation: Identify the purpose of the skill: ▫Knowing skill purpose assists observation of skill Break the skill into phases: ▫Preliminary movements  Movements needed to get ready for skill ▫Back-swing or recovery movements  Movements that take place just before force-producing movements ▫Force-producing movements  Movements executed to produce force for impact or propulsion ▫Critical instant  Point that determines how effective skill execution will be ▫Follow-through  Movements that take place after critical instant

11 Skills Analysis- cont’d Identify key elements of each phase: ▫Break each phase into observable elements ▫Key elements of each phase generally connected to execution of other skill phases Develop observation plan: ▫Must decide before watching how they are going to perform the observation process ▫Determination of which key elements will be observed ▫Develop scanning strategy to obtain general picture before focusing on specific elements ▫Choose a varied number of positions for observation ▫Determination of how many observations needed

12 Adapting Skill Development: Shaping  ▫ Encourages learners to develop “shape” a skill gradually ▫ Skill demonstration includes only the most important actions ▫ Missing pieces added gradually until whole skill is learned ▫ Gradual process Chaining  ▫ Forward chaining ▫Start at beginning of action ▫Learn first phase, then second phase, then chain the phases together before moving onto the third phase, etc. ▫Backward chaining ▫Begin at end of complex and work backward

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