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Phases of Motor Development Motor development is simply learning to move with control and efficiency and is characterized by four predictable phases Reflexive.

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Presentation on theme: "Phases of Motor Development Motor development is simply learning to move with control and efficiency and is characterized by four predictable phases Reflexive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phases of Motor Development Motor development is simply learning to move with control and efficiency and is characterized by four predictable phases Reflexive Movement Phase (sub-cortically controlled) Rudimentary Movement Phase Stability Skills Fundamental Movement Phase Sports Related Movement Phase Locomotion Skills Manipulation Skills

2 Reflexive Movement Phase (0-4 months) first sign of controlled motor development, sub-cortex controls all reflexive movements Rudimentary Movement Phase (0-2 years) Locomotive Skills: Creeping, Crawling, Walking Manipulative Skills: Reaching for, grabbing, releasing Stability Skills: Gaining control of head, neck and trunk Learning how to sit and stand unassisted Fundamental Movement Phase (2-7 years) Evolution of skills Running and Kicking - Throwing and Catching - Heading/Trapping Sports Related Movement Phase (7-adulthood) General Specific Specialized Underhand throw Underhand serve Accuracy and control Phases of Motor Development

3 Sports Related Movement Stages General Transitional Stage (7-10 years old): During this stage, participants: start formulating a self concept; learn to interact with peers; acquire the physical,cognitive and social skills necessary for proficiency in games; learn to interact with peers; start to understand the ideas and reasons for rules in games; improve their perceptual motor skills such as hand-eye coordination develop a system of conscience, morality and value judgment

4 Specific Stage (11-13 years old): During this stage, participants: develop the social, cognitive, language, and motor skills necessary for individual and group participation; adapt to the physical/physiological changes affecting their body; establish a sense on independence and identification; are introduced to competitive sport (house league) Specialized Stage (14 years and on): During this stage, participants: become more independent; reach full skeletal maturity and full height; improve social and communication skills participate in high levels of competition (rep for example)

5 Recommendations for Sports Participation

6 For each Sport Related Movement Phase: Give Recommendations for… Skills & training Degree of competition Strategies and tactics Game/activity modifications year olds 7-10 year olds

7 General Transitional Stage (7-10 years old): Skills present skills that are simple – not complex not harmful to the body practice flexibility and aerobic fitness emphasize development of body awareness emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation emphasize having fun, making 100% effort put winning and losing in perspective

8 Degree of Competition balance the degree of competition – use low-key competition do not promote out of town competition, league standings and play-offs allow boys and girls to participate together Strategies and Tactics implement simple strategies that encourage participation emphasize learning skills, not learning strategy – winning is not crucial Game/Activity Modification play simple modified versions of the activity use scaled-down equipment avoid specialization in position or event participate in other activities that complement the sport

9 Specific Stage (11-13 years old): Skills teach more intricate, refined skills introduce sub-maximal strength training train both the anaerobic and aerobic systems continue to practice flexibility continue to emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation introduce concentration techniques continue to put winning and losing in perspective

10 Degree of Competition recommend well-structure competitive situations use tournament competition use league standings and play-offs in late stages separate boys and girls in competition Strategies and Tactics introduce more intricate strategies and tactics emphasize that winning is still not a critical factor introduce individual and group goal setting use incentives to motive Game/Activity Modification use scaled-down equipment or game modifications avoid specialization in position or event

11 Specialization Stage (14 years of age and on): Skills refine all skills of the sport allow strength training program train both the anaerobic and aerobic systems continue to practice flexibility continue to emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation continue to develop and refine concentration techniques continue to put winning and losing in perspective practice and refine coping strategies

12 Degree of Competition participate in demanding, high level competition use league standings and play-offs in late stages Strategies and Tactics teach and refine all of the strategies and tactics of the sport stress winning continue to use individual and group goal setting use multiple incentives to motive Game/Activity Modification play full game or activity rather than a modified version emphasize specialization of position or event

13 Group Task Imagine yourself as the coach of the group of athletes whose ages and sport are indicated. Indicate how you would address the 4 developmental areas (physical, cognitive, motor, and social) and modify your instruction to the indicated age level. Assume all of the athletes have come through the ranks of the various age levels a tennis player at level 2 (age 7) has already participated at level 1.

14 Adapting Sport Skills to Match Development Levels Sport Skill: Hitting a baseball Age level: under 5 years Modifications: 1.Use a tee, as player of this age may have difficulty hitting moving pitch 2.Use light bat to allow for lack of physical strength 3.Work with the athlete to develop his or her swing without the ball, encouraging him or her to visualize contact repeatedly 4.Gradually introduce slow-moving pitch with larger ball for more advanced players 5.Social aspects of this skill may be hard to develop as the skill is essentially individual

15 Sport Skill (age & level) 1.Kicking a soccer ball (level 1, under 5 years old) 2.Heading a soccer ball (level 2, 5-7 years old) 3.Passing a hockey puck (level 2, 5-7 years old) 4.A cartwheel in gymnastics (level 3, 7-9 years old) 5.Tossing a spiral in football (level 3, 7-9 years old) 6.A jump shot in basketball (level 4, 9-11 years old)


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