Presentation on theme: "Phases of Motor Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phases of Motor Development Motor development is simply learning to move with control and efficiency and is characterized by four predictable phasesReflexive Movement Phase(sub-cortically controlled)Rudimentary Movement PhaseStability SkillsFundamental MovementPhaseSports RelatedMovement PhaseLocomotionSkillsManipulationSkills
2 Phases of Motor Development Reflexive Movement Phase (0-4 months)first sign of controlled motor development, sub-cortex controls all reflexive movementsRudimentary Movement Phase (0-2 years)Locomotive Skills: Creeping, Crawling, WalkingManipulative Skills: Reaching for, grabbing, releasingStability Skills: Gaining control of head, neck and trunkLearning how to sit and stand unassistedFundamental Movement Phase (2-7 years)Evolution of skillsRunning and Kicking - Throwing and Catching - Heading/TrappingSports Related Movement Phase (7-adulthood)General Specific SpecializedUnderhand throw Underhand serve Accuracy and control
3 Sports Related Movement Stages General Transitional Stage (7-10 years old):During this stage, participants:• start formulating a self concept;• learn to interact with peers;• acquire the physical ,cognitive and social skills necessary forproficiency in games;• start to understand the ideas and reasons for rules in games;• improve their perceptual motor skills such as hand-eye coordination• develop a system of conscience, morality and value judgment
4 Specific Stage (11-13 years old): During this stage, participants:• develop the social, cognitive, language, and motor skills necessary for individual and group participation;• adapt to the physical/physiological changes affecting their body;• establish a sense on independence and identification;• are introduced to competitive sport (house league)Specialized Stage (14 years and on):During this stage, participants:• become more independent;• reach full skeletal maturity and full height;• improve social and communication skills• participate in high levels of competition (rep for example)
6 For each Sport Related Movement Phase: Give Recommendations for… Skills & trainingDegree of competitionStrategies and tacticsGame/activity modifications14+11-13 year olds7-10 year olds
7 General Transitional Stage (7-10 years old):Skills• present skills that are simple – not complex• not harmful to the body• practice flexibility and aerobic fitness• emphasize development of body awareness• emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation• emphasize having fun, making 100% effort• put winning and losing in perspective
8 Degree of Competition• balance the degree of competition – use low-key competition• do not promote out of town competition, league standings and play-offs• allow boys and girls to participate togetherStrategies and Tactics• implement simple strategies that encourage participation• emphasize learning skills, not learning strategy – winning is not crucialGame/Activity Modification• play simple modified versions of the activity• use scaled-down equipment• avoid specialization in position or event• participate in other activities that complement the sport
9 Specific Stage (11-13 years old): Skills• teach more intricate, refined skills• introduce sub-maximal strength training• train both the anaerobic and aerobic systems• continue to practice flexibility• continue to emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation• introduce concentration techniques• continue to put winning and losing in perspective
10 Degree of Competition• recommend well-structure competitive situations• use tournament competition• use league standings and play-offs in late stages• separate boys and girls in competitionStrategies and Tactics• introduce more intricate strategies and tactics• emphasize that winning is still not a critical factor• introduce individual and group goal setting• use incentives to motiveGame/Activity Modification• use scaled-down equipment or game modifications• avoid specialization in position or event
11 Specialization Stage (14 years of age and on): Skills • refine all skills of the sport• allow strength training program• train both the anaerobic and aerobic systems• continue to practice flexibility• continue to emphasize the development of confidence, self esteem, peer interaction and cooperation• continue to develop and refine concentration techniques• continue to put winning and losing in perspective• practice and refine coping strategies
12 Degree of Competition• participate in demanding, high level competition• use league standings and play-offs in late stagesStrategies and Tactics• teach and refine all of the strategies and tactics of the sport• stress winning• continue to use individual and group goal setting• use multiple incentives to motiveGame/Activity Modification• play full game or activity rather than a modified version• emphasize specialization of position or event
13 Group TaskImagine yourself as the coach of the group of athletes whose ages and sport are indicated.Indicate how you would address the 4 developmental areas (physical, cognitive, motor, and social) and modify your instruction to the indicated age level.Assume all of the athletes have “come through the ranks” of the various age levels a tennis player at level 2 (age 7) has already participated at level 1.
14 Adapting Sport Skills to Match Development Levels Sport Skill: Hitting a baseballAge level: under 5 yearsModifications:Use a ‘tee’, as player of this age may have difficulty hitting moving pitchUse light bat to allow for lack of physical strengthWork with the athlete to develop his or her swing without the ball, encouraging him or her to visualize contact repeatedlyGradually introduce slow-moving pitch with larger ball for more advanced playersSocial aspects of this skill may be hard to develop as the skill is essentially individual
15 Sport Skill (age & level) Kicking a soccer ball (level 1, under 5 years old)Heading a soccer ball (level 2, 5-7 years old)Passing a hockey puck (level 2, 5-7 years old)A cartwheel in gymnastics (level 3, 7-9 years old)Tossing a spiral in football (level 3, 7-9 years old)A jump shot in basketball (level 4, 9-11 years old)
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