I. Rising Tensions in Euro. A. Rise of Nationalism Helped unify countries Helped fuel competition betw. countries Rivals: Germany, Aust.-Hungary, G.B., Russia, Italy, & France Competition for materials & markets Territorial disputes Aust.-Hung. & Russia = Balkans
B. Imperialism & Militarism Competition for colonies in Af. & Asia Rivalry & mistrust deepened Arms race – militarization Would solve problems Built large armies ready to mobilize 1890s: Germany built navy to rival G.B. 1906: the Dreadnought (G.B.) The entire able-bodied population are preparing to massacre one another; though no one, it is true, wants to attack, and everybody protests his love of peace and determination to maintain it, yet the whole world feels that it only requires some unforeseen incident, some unpreventable accident, for the spark to fall in a flash…and blow all Europe sky-high.
II. The System of Alliances 1864-1871: unification of Italy & Germany changed balance of power Germany led by Otto von Bismarck of Prussia: German chancellor
A. Bismarck Forges Early Pacts Bismarck: feared Fr. would seek revenge for its 1871 defeat in Franco-Prussian War Regain Alsace-Lorraine Keep Fr. isolated w/out allies 1879: Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance (Germany & Aust.-Hungary)— Italy joined also to form the Triple Alliance 1881: Bismarck made treaty w/Russia
B. Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace 1890: Kaiser Wilhelm II became ruler Did not share power I and the army were born for one another. Let treaty lapse w/Russia Russia: formed alliance w/Fr. Two-front war? Pursued ship building (worried G.B.) G.B. = formed Triple Entente w/Fr. & Russia
A. A Restless Region Early 1900s: Ottomans in decline Many won independence in Balkans Nationalism drove groups to extend borders Serbia: large Slavic pop. Goal: absorb all the Slavs on the Balkan Pen. Russia: mostly Slavic (supported Serbs) Aust.-Hungary—opposed Slavic nationalism
1908: Aust. annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina Large Slavic pops. (Serbia wanted) Serbians were outraged (tensions w/Aust.)
B. A Shot Rings Out Archduke Franz Ferdinand & wife, Sophie June 28, 1914: visited Sarajevo (Bosnia) Shot by Gavrilo Princip (Serbian member of the Black Hand) b/c assassin was Serb, Aust. decided to punish Serbia gave Serbia ultimatum w/demands Serbia = wanted to negotiate, Aust. did not = WAR! July 28: Aust. declared war on Serbia Russia aided Serbia