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Marching Toward War Chapter 13, Section 1. Introduction  Efforts to outlaw war and achieve a permanent peace had been gaining momentum in Europe since.

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Presentation on theme: "Marching Toward War Chapter 13, Section 1. Introduction  Efforts to outlaw war and achieve a permanent peace had been gaining momentum in Europe since."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marching Toward War Chapter 13, Section 1

2 Introduction  Efforts to outlaw war and achieve a permanent peace had been gaining momentum in Europe since the middle of the 19 th century.  Some Europeans believed that progress had made war a thing of the past.  Yet in little more than a decade, a massive war would spread across the globe.

3 Rising Tensions in Europe  Below the surface of peace and goodwill, Europe witnessed several gradual developments that would ultimately help propel the continent into war.

4 The Rise of Nationalism  The growth of ___________—deep devotion to one ’ s nation—caused intense competition among the __________: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France.  The ________ competed for markets and territory.  Intense nationalism in the nations of the _________ led to demands for independence among Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, and others.

5 Imperialism and Militarism  __________, and the quest for colonies sometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war and intensified the sense of rivalry and mistrust.  The nations of Europe took pride in having strong militaries and being prepared for war. This led to a dangerous ________.  Glorifying military power is called ___________.

6 Tangled Alliances   Growing rivalries and mutual mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among the Great Powers as early as the 1870s. This alliance system had been ____________ in Europe. But it would instead help ________________.

7 Bismarck Forges Early Pacts   Between 1864 and 1871, Prussia ’ s blood- and-iron chancellor, ___________, freely used war to unify Germany.   Bismarck saw France as the greatest threat to peace.   His goal was to isolate France and leave it without allies.   In 1879, Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance between _______ and Austria- Hungary.   In 1881, _______ joined this alliance forming the ______________.

8 Triple Alliance (1881)

9 Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace   In 1890, Germany ’ s foreign policy changed dramatically. That year, __________—ruler of Germany—forced Bismarck to resign.   Wilhelm let his nation ’ s treaty with Russia lapse in   ___________ a military alliance with France in 1892 and Such an alliance had been Bismarck ’ s fear.

10  Picture of Kaiser Wilhelm II

11 Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace (continued)   Kaiser Wilhelm II starts a shipbuilding program to make the German navy equal to the British fleet.   Alarmed by this, England forms the _________ with France and Russia.   Therefore, there are two rival camps in Europe: the ____________ and the Triple Entente.

12 Military Alliances Before World War I

13 Crisis in the Balkans   This mountainous peninsula in the southeastern corner of Europe was home to an assortment of ethnic groups. With a long history of nationalist uprisings and ethnic clashes, the Balkans was known as the ____________ of Europe.

14 A Restless Region  By the early 1900s the __________ had declined and the peoples of the Balkans had formed new nations: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia.  Serbia had a large ___________ and was supported by Russia.  In 1908, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbian leaders were outraged and tensions between the two nations rose.

15 A Shot Rings Throughout Europe  On June 28, 1914 the heir to the throne of Austria, _____________ __ and his wife Sophie, paid a visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. Foolishly, they were riding in an open car.

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17 Assassination and Ultimatum  The couple was shot by 19-year- old _________ (right), a Serbian nationalist member of the terrorist organization Black Hand.

18 Location of Assassination

19 Historical Marker

20 Ultimatum  __________ delivers an ultimatum to Serbia with numerous demands on July 23, Serbia agreed to most of the demands trying to avoid war.

21 Historical Artifact  The blood stained uniform of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

22 The War Begins  ____________: Austria rejects Serbia ’ s offer of most of the demands and declared war on Serbia.  Russia, the protector of Serbia, mobilizes its forces toward the Austrian border.


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