Presentation on theme: "Essential Question What caused World War I? ■ Text From 1914 to 1919, World War I erupted in Europe This “Great War” was the largest, most destructive."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Question What caused World War I?
■ Text From 1914 to 1919, World War I erupted in Europe This “Great War” was the largest, most destructive war the world had yet seen WWI was a global war that altered the course of the 20 th century What caused World War I?
From 1870 to 1914, a number of developments gradually increased tensions among the European powers that led to the outbreak of World War I The MILITARISM ALLIANCES IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM causes of World War I
MILITARISM The Industrial Revolution led to large, advanced militaries in Europe Europeans believed that to be great, nations had to have strong militaries As a result, an arms race began among European nations, especially between Britain & Germany Nations glorified military power & kept an army prepared for war (called militarism) Having a strong army increased patriotism among citizens
IMPERIALISM European nations competed fiercely for colonies in Africa & Asia Competition for colonies often pushed Europeans to the brink of war This competition increased European rivalry & mistrust Germany & France almost went to war three times over Morocco Germany, England, Russia argued over building a railroad in India England & France argued over rights to the Sudan
ALLIANCES Growing rivalries among nations led to the formation of two military alliances that threatened to draw European nations into war Germany, Italy, & Austria-Hungary made up the Triple Alliance England, France, & Russia formed the Triple Entente
NATIONALISM Austrian national poster, 1900 Rivalries due to militarism & imperialism increased nationalism among European powers British propaganda poster, 1897 European rivals tried to maintain a balance of power while also trying to overpower each other “European Balance of Power, 1914”
NATIONALISM While nationalism unified people in the powerful nations, it was dividing people in weakening empires No region was more tense in the years before World War I than the Balkans Serbia, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, & Romania broke from the Ottoman Empire to create new nations Slavic people in Serbia wanted to unify all Slavs but Austria-Hungary opposed giving up the largely Slavic territories Bosnia & Herzegovina The Balkans became a “powder keg” waiting for a spark to blow up
The Outbreak of World War I Serbians vowed to take Bosnia & Herzegovina from Austria-Hungary On June 28, 1914, the Austro- Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife were assassinated by a Serbian terrorist The assassin Gavrilo Princip
The Outbreak of World War I On July 23, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia: turn over conspirators & allow an investigation…OR…go to war When Serbia balked at some of the terms, Austria-Hungary declared war on July 28, 1914 Russia had a large population of Slavs & was an ally of Serbia; Russia moved troops to the Austrian border These events set off a chain reaction that started World War I
World War 1 Begins Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia & its ally Russia On July 28,1914, Serbia declined the ultimatum On August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France Italy backed out of its agreement with Germany & Austria-Hungary… …and joined the Allies On August 4, 1914, England declared war on Germany & Austria-Hungary Russia mobilized for war to protect Serbia World War I had begun
During the war Germany & Austria-Hungary became the Central Powers; They were joined by Bulgaria & the Ottoman Empire The members of the Triple Entente became known as the Allied Powers and eventually were joined by…