Presentation on theme: "The Reconstruction (1865-1877) The U.S. government’s controversial effort to restore the Southern States to the Union."— Presentation transcript:
The Reconstruction (1865-1877) The U.S. government’s controversial effort to restore the Southern States to the Union.
The War’s Aftermath! 2/3 Southern Shipping in ruins Cities, farms, factories, homes destroyed 4 million ex- slaves Unemployment was rampant
The Freedman’s Bureau By Congress-March 1865 - 1869 Clothing, Medicine, Meals to ex-slaves 250,000 plus blacks received first education at bureau schools The question of land?
Bell Ringer – Sherman’s March Why is this policy controversial? Is total warfare and scorched earth an option for warfare in the 21 st Century?
Three Reconstruction Plans 1. President Lincoln’s Plan 2. President Andrew Johnson’s Plan 3. The Republican Congress’s Plan Which plan would the U.S. follow?
President Lincoln’s Plan “Malice toward none” = lenient & forgiving Called the Ten Percent Plan 10% Voters in CSA states had to re-pledge loyalty to Union States had to write new constitutions that abolished slavery Gave pardons to ex-Confederates except for high-ranking officials After these were complete, they could hold elections and participate in the Union again
Lincoln is Assassinated! John Wilkes Booth, an actor, originally plotted to kidnap Lincoln and others Also targeted are VP Andrew Johnson & Sec. State William H. Seward April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre Booth murders Lincoln Booth is later killed near Port Royal, VA 4/10 co- conspirators were hanged
President Johnson’s Plan He was a Democrat from TN, ex- SEN, VP; he took office when Congress was out of session and enacted his plan. Southerners Pardoned New State Constitutions without Lincoln’s 10% 13 th Amendment- abolished slavery Amnesty to high-ranking CSA officials who asked him personally by letter Lenient like Lincoln’s Plan Johnson supported States’ Rights which meant no vote for African Americans. This angered Congress.
Radical or Congressional Reconstruction They wanted to punish the Confederacy for the war = harsh Reconstruction! 1866 Civil Rights Act outlawed black codes Republicans favored full equality for African Americans Johnson vetoed it and Congress overrode it Johnson and the Republican Congress were now at odds! Thaddeus Stevens House of Reps Charles Sumner Senate
President Johnson’s Impeachment (1868) Tenure of Office Act (1867) Johnson fired Sec. War Stanton Impeached for “High Crimes and Misdemeanors” Saved by 1 vote!
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Radical Republican Plan) Military Rule: South divided into 5 military districts controlled by Union troops States had to draft new constitutions All eligible voters (blacks too) could vote Barred ex-Confederates from voting Equal rights to all citizens States must ratify 14 th Amendment – Citizenship for ex-slaves.
Bell Ringer – Three Reconstruction Plans 1. President Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstructing the South was known as the ___ Percent Plan. a. Twob. Ten c. Fifty d. Seventy-five 2. President Johnson’s plan required the Southern States to ratify the ____ Amendment, which abolished slavery. a. 13 th b. 14 th c. 19 th d. 27 th 3. Who favored a harsh and punishing Reconstruction plan for the South? a. Lincoln b. Johnson c. Radical Republicansd. Ex-Confederates 4. How many military districts was the South divided into during Reconstruction? a. 3b. 5 c. 8 d. 11
The Elections of 1868 & 1872 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) defeated Seymour (NY) in 68 and Greely (NY) in 72 with help from black voters. Both terms marred by political scandals that damaged the Republican Party’s image! President Grant
Spreading Terror! T he Ku Klux Klan (1865) was the best-known hate group Terrorized Blacks and White Republicans Force Act of 1870 helped curb Klan practices for a time, but gradually white Southerners organized and used violence to keep blacks from voting. Whites gradually began to take back state and local governments as U.S. troop levels were reduced in the South.
15 th Amendment (1870) Last of Civil War Amendments No state could deny the right to vote on basis of race or color Troops protected blacks and they voted in mass! Blanch K. Bruce (MS) in 1874 became first black Senator
The Stolen Election of 1876 Voters grew tired of greed and corruption in government 1876 Election saw Samuel Tilden (D) win popular vote by 250,000 over Rutherford B. Hayes (R) SC, FL, LA Republican controlled and they threw out enough Democratic votes to give Hayes (185) victory over Tilden (184)! Both sides were dishonest, but each claimed victory They decided to form a 15-man electoral commission (5 R, 5 D, 5 SC Justices) to decide the winner. How did they vote?
The Compromise of 1877 Ends Reconstruction! The Commission ruled 8-7 in favor of Hayes. Both parties compromised: Democrats would accept Hayes if Republicans removed the rest of the troops from the South and appoint a conservative Southerner to his cabinet. Reconstruction ends and the “Long Night” of racial segregation begins for African- Americans in the South.
The Effects of Reconstruction Successes 1. Union Restored and South repaired 2. South began to industrialize 3. 13 th,14 th, 15 th Amendments 4. Education for Blacks and Poor Whites Failures 1. Blacks remained poor; many were sharecroppers 2. KKK and Jim Crow Laws 3. Racism still prevailed 4. South still lagged behind North economically
Bell Ringer – Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction 1. What organization created by Congress provided ex- slaves their first chance for school? a. NAACP b. United Negro College Fund c. Freedman’s Bureau 2. T or F: Lincoln favored a harsh Reconstruction plan for the South. 3. Who was President Lincoln’s assassin? a. John Wilkes Booth b. Charles Guiteau c. Lee Harvey Oswald 4. All of the following were targeted for assassination along with Lincoln except a. Sec. of State Seward b. Sec. of War Stanton c. Vice President Johnson
Bell Ringer – The End of Reconstruction 1. Most historians consider President Grant a(n) ________ president. a. effective b. weak c. mean d. uncaring 2. Which amendment gave African-Americans the right to vote? a. 13 th b. 14 th c. 15 th d. 16 th 3. The “Stolen Election” of President _______ in 1876 ended Reconstruction. a. Grant b. Tildenc. Hayes d. Garfield 4. List one positive OR one negative effect of Reconstruction.