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C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 1: Introduction to.

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Presentation on theme: "C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 1: Introduction to."— Presentation transcript:

1 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 1: Introduction to the Study of Terrorism Agenda: 1) Course Admin Review 2) Course Assignment #1 3) Lesson 1: Defining Terrorism

2 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Terrorist Group Analysis 3-page case study Describe a terrorist group, including motivations, structure, strategy, etc. Due 8 September, NLT 1600 Your performance on this will determine who is selected to go on the DC trip AB95-5.PPT // ## Course Assignment #1

3 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Tuesday, 22 August – E Hour, GEN Downing Thursday, 24 August – Lesson 2: History of Terrorism Sunday, August 27 – Counterterrorism Fellowship reception, with military officers from 32 countries, at the Thayer Hotel, Lawn Terrace – See Sign-up Sheet Read, read, read like your life depends on it Guest lectures are mandatory (esp. GEN Downing) No “office hours” but me for appointments Some class or lecture dates may change: Always check the course website for latest information AB95-5.PPT // ## Course Admin notes

4 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Current Events Terrorist Hotspots? Reflections on the assigned readings –Hoffman –Stern –Crenshaw –Ahmad –Pillar SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 1: Introduction to Terrorism

5 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Definitions –Many –Ambiguous –Are terrorists “freedom fighters”? –Matter of perception? –What is the relationship between insurgency and terrorism? Are all insurgents terrorists? Are all terrorists insurgents? –AW/UW, 4GW and terrorism Defining Terrorism

6 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies The Study of Terrorism: Implications for the Education of Military Officers Officers must have a total grasp of the struggle, not just the terrorist acts Why is terrorism being used as a tactic? What are the political goals? Part of an insurgency? What are the political, social, economic, cultural, information dimensions of the conflict as well as the security and military aspects. How do these interrelate? Training on tactics, techniques, and procedures can be developed but not until the leaders have the background (According to GEN Downing and GEN McCaffrey)

7 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Vision Power Strategy Tactic Duty Shame Freedom fighter Self-sacrifice Will to kill Skill to kill AB95-5.PPT // ## Terrorism: Key Terms Ideology Indoctrination Radicalization Rationalization Emotions Moral Disengagement Communicative Acts Facilitators/Causes Learning Organization Counter vs. Anti Hard/Soft Power

8 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Certain aspects are fundamental Political act –Desire for political change –Terrorism is typically non-state in character (Note the separate but related topic of state terrorism – typically antithetical to the desire for political change.) States can terrorize, but they are not terrorists. –Terrorists do not abide by norms They target innocents They seek psychological trauma

9 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies AB95-5.PPT // ## Primary Types Left-wing Right Wing Ethno-nationalist (separatist) Religious Defining Terrorism

10 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Left wing terrorist Driven by liberal or idealist political concepts Prefer revolutionary anti-authoritarian anti- materialist agendas Typically target elites that symbolize authority Examples?

11 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Right wing terrorists Often target race and ethnicity Examples?

12 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Ethnonationalist/separatists Usually have clear territorial objectives –Liberation/separation –Popular support usually along ethnic/racial lines. Examples?

13 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Religious terrorists Believe involved in a struggle of good vs evil Acting along desires of a diety – audience is thus not necessarily human. Feel unconstrained by law – higher calling Complete alienation from existing socio/political order Support may be diffuse Ideologies are supremacist & absolutist Examples?

14 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Historical Examples Zealots – Sicarri 1 st century BCE –Murdered Romans in broad daylight in Jerusalem Hindu Thugee –Thugs originally religious sect that strangled & robbed victims in ritual sacrifice Muslim Assassins –It is a myth that the word assassin comes from the Arabic word haschishin for hashish user. –Assassin comes from Hassassin -- a follower of Hassan – Hassan was Persian not Arabic

15 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Historical Examples French revolution –Use of revolutionary tribunals to prop up the French republic. –Rule by fear/terror – Robespierre’s “lists” Iraq –Hussein regime uses chemical weapons to subdue uprising among Kurdish villages –Rule by fear/terror –Contemporary groups using terrorism...

16 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Historical Examples Irish Republican Army Hizballah ETA (Basque Separatists) LEHI, Stern Gang and Zvi Irgun (Jewish extremists) Tamil Tigers (LTTE) Sendero Luminoso FARC MRTA (Tupac Amaru movement) Al Qaida Jemaah Islamiya Aum Shinrikyo Moro Islamic Liberation Front Egyptian Islamic Jihad Algerian GIA and GSPC Syrian Muslim Brotherhood Hizb ut-Tahrir Al Qaeda in Iraq Lashkar-e Taiba (and other Kashmir groups) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Italian Red Brigades Red Army Faction (Baader Meinhof Gang) U.S.-based militia groups The Order, the Aryan Brotherhood, Christian Identity, The Sword, the Covenant & Arm of the Lord Many, many others...

17 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies More history of terrorism First VBIED (or “Car Bomb”) terrorist attack? New York City, September 1920 Terrorist: Italian anarchist Mario Buda Vehicle: Horse-drawn wagon Target: Corner of Wall and Broad streets (directly across from JP Morgan Company) Attack: The wagon—packed with dynamite and iron slugs— exploded at precisely noon in a fireball of shrapnel, killing 40 and wounding more than 200.

18 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies More history of terrorism Second VBIED (or “Car Bomb”) terrorist attack? Haifa, Palestine (now Israel) January, 1947 Terrorists: Stern Gang (a pro-fascist splinter group led by Avraham Stern that broke away from the right-wing Zionist paramilitary Irgun) Vehicle: Truck Target: British police station in Haifa Attack: A truckload of explosives was driven into the station, killing 4 and injuring 140. (The Stern Gang would soon use truck and car bombs to kill Palestinians as well, as part of their extremist agenda)

19 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Basic trends in modern terrorism More violent attacks (and increasing lethality) Increasing use of suicide bombers (the ultimate smart bomb) Religious terrorist groups most common (even insurgencies and ethnic separatist groups use religion to justify violence)

20 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Lesson 1: Wrap-up –What is a terrorist? –Who is a terrorist? –Terrorists do not want a "terrorist state" so, what do terrorists desire and what motivates terrorists? –Why do definitions matter?

21 C OMBATING T ERRORISM C ENTER at West Point Dr. James Forest Director of Terrorism Studies Questions?


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