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The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective

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1 The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective

2 Historical Background
Pre-WWI: Area of Palestine under Ottoman Empire After WWI: Area of Palestine under control of British (British Mandate) until it became independent Balfour Declaration: 1917: Britain supports idea of a Jewish homeland w/ rights of non-Jews protected Zionist: Supporter of a homeland for the Jews in the area of Palestine. Movement began late 1800’s. Many Jews began to immigrate to Palestine in the late 1800’s.

3 Claims to the Land Ancestors lived in area nearly 2000 years ago
Israel Palestinians Ancestors lived in area nearly 2000 years ago Jerusalem home to most important Jewish site—Western Wall Ancestors have been living in area nearly 2000 years Jerusalem home to 3rd most important Muslim site-Dome of the Rock/Al-Asqa Mosque

4 UN Plan for Palestine (1947)
Partition (separate) the area into 2 countries Israel (Jewish State) and Palestine (Arab State) 55% of land goes to the Jews 45% of land goes to the Arabs Total Population: 1.8 million 1.2 million Arabs living in area 600,000 Jews living in area Jerusalem:“international city” controlled by UN Accepted by Jews Rejected by Arabs No Arab on committee

5 1948 War May 14,1948: Israel is officially formed
May 15, 1948: Israel attacked by six Arab nations Approx. 750,000 Palestinians fled or were forced to leave May 15, 1948: Israel attacked by six neighboring Arab nations—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,Syria 1% of Jewish population dies in War—6,000 people

6 1948 War Over approx. 800,000 Jews in Arab countries also fled or were forced to leave for Israel Israel After War: Jordan controls West Bank and Egypt controls Gaza Strip Israel takes much of Palestine and western part of Jerusalem—eastern part including religious sites taken by Jordan


8 Perspectives on Partition and 1948 War
Israeli Creates state of Israel War of Independence Holocaust and other periods of violence against Jews throughout the past centuries might not have happened if there was a Jewish Homeland Palestinian They had no input Nabka: “Catastrophe” Land set aside for Palestinians now under control of Arab countries or Israel Picture of building is where the dec of independence was signed in Tel Aviv. Last spring for the first time ever, Israeli textbooks are mentioning the Nabka. This is huge and was very controversial.

9 1967 War Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war
Egypt cuts Israel off from Red Sea Increased terrorist attacks from Palestinians in Syria and Jordan Israeli surprise attack against Egypt Six days later Israel defeats Egypt, Syria, Jordan Takes control of West Bank , Gaza Strip Control of all of Jerusalem Control of Sinai (from Egypt) Control of Golan Heights (from Syria) As a result of the 1967 War, Israel looses 800 troops, Arabs loose over 15,000 Palestinians living in Jerusalem could have either Israeli or Jordanian citizenship—most picked Jordanian Palestinians living in other areas conquored by Israel not given citizenship choice, but came under Israeli control

10 Perspectives on 1967 War Palestinian and Arab Nations Will accept Israel at pre-1967 War borders. Creation of Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) prior to war to work for Palestinian State. Violent segments within group begin to dominate through 1960’s and 1970’s led by Yasser Arafat. West Bank and Gaza Strip become known as “Occupied Territories” Israeli Land gained is a buffer zone to deter future attacks Begin to build settlements in West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights Shows Israel is there to stay and must be dealt with Picture is of Golan Heights—body of water is Sea of Galilee. Big source of water for Israel

11 Peace Efforts Part I 1977: Egypt (led by Anwar Sadat) engages Israel in peace efforts 1978: Camp David Accords U.S. President Carter invites Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to Camp David Egypt recognizes Israel as a country Israel gives Sinai back to Egypt First agreement between Israel and an Arab nation Top picture is of Sharm El Sheik on Red Sea (Egypt) was under Israeli control until Camp David. Popular diving/beach resort. Many Israelis visit. Bottom picture is of Mt. Sinai showing landscape of the Sinai Penninsula.

12 Perspectives on Camp David Accords
Palestinian and Arab Nations Israeli Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists Egypt &Israel still at peace Willing to trade land it has conquered for peace Arab Countries at peace w/ israel will accept Israeli stamped passports at passport control. But those who are not—syria, Saudi, Lebanon, you can not enter those countries w/ an Israeli stamp in your passport.

13 The Intifada Palestinian Uprising that begins in the territories and then in Jerusalem. Organized protests and rock throwing against Israeli troops Begins in 1987 Over approx Palestinians Killed Over approx. 400 Israelis Killed Stats from

14 Peace Efforts Part 2 Oslo Peace Process
In the mid 1990’s, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat met to begin to work out a peace deal based on Palestinian acceptance of existence of Israel. Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremist Picture of site in Tel Aviv were Rabin was killed by a Jewish extremist who was a student at Bar-Ilan unversity (a religiously affiliated university near Tel Aviv). Rabin had just finished making a speech in support of peace when he was killed.

15 Second Intifada By 2000, peace process has faded.
In 2000, Israeli political figure Ariel Sharon visits Temple Mount (Western Wall area and Al Asqua Mosque area) in Jerusalem Violence Erupts Buses, discos, hotels, fast food restaurants, etc blown up by Palestinian Suicide Bombers Israeli military responds with force From 2000-March 2008 Over 4000 Palestinians killed Over 900 Israeli killed by Palestinians Stats from B’ Sharon becomes PM in 2001

16 Current Issues “Two-State Solution” Palestinian and Israeli leaders backed by US and other countries working towards the existence of Israel and of Palestine. But the following issues remain: Jerusalem: Both sides want it as their capitol Israeli Settlers: For religious, political, and security reasons a large number of Israelis have formed settlements in the occupied territories. Security Barrier: Israel is building a wall between it and the West Bank. Israel sees this as a way to prevent further suicide bombings. In some areas, the wall goes into the West Bank to protect Israeli settlements. Movement: Palestinians need permission to leave West Bank. Israelis see this as needed security, but limits jobs, health care, education, etc. Terrorist Organizations like Hamas (which controls the Gaza Strip) and Hezbollah (based in Lebanon and who was at war with Israel in the summer of 2006) continue to fire rockets into Israel The UN’s issue w/ the security barrier is not the building of it, it’s that it goes into Palestinian territory. In several cases, it divides Palestinian farmers from their olive groves, kids from their schools. What if the guard at the checkpoint doesn’t show up to work that day. Stats show there has been a decrease in terrorist activity since wall began to go up. Palestinians must go through checkpoints to enter Israel. Security barrier includes fence, wall, ditches, mounds of dirt, etc. Israel has just stated it is ready to trade Golan Heights to Syria for peace. Possible issue could be Sea of Galilee in Golan Heights as it is a major water source for the area. Most Palestinians believe they will not be able to return to former land and homes and many are willing to sacrifice that for peace. Jerusalem: The US government as well as many other nations does not refer to Jerusalem as Jerusalem, Israel. If you were to send a letter to our Consulate in Jerusalem, you’d send it to Jerusalem, Jerusalem. This reflects the idea that control of Jerusalem is still disputed. Picture of wall Econ conditions in the WB are much lower than in Israel


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