Presentation on theme: "The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective
2 Historical Background Pre-WWI: Area of Palestine under Ottoman EmpireAfter WWI: Area of Palestine under control of British (British Mandate) until it became independentBalfour Declaration: 1917: Britain supports idea of a Jewish homeland w/ rights of non-Jews protectedZionist: Supporter of a homeland for the Jews in the area of Palestine. Movement began late 1800’s.Many Jews began to immigrate to Palestine in the late 1800’s.
3 Claims to the Land Ancestors lived in area nearly 2000 years ago IsraelPalestiniansAncestors lived in area nearly 2000 years agoJerusalem home to most important Jewish site—Western WallAncestors have been living in area nearly 2000 yearsJerusalem home to 3rd most important Muslim site-Dome of the Rock/Al-Asqa Mosque
4 UN Plan for Palestine (1947) Partition (separate) the area into 2 countriesIsrael (Jewish State) and Palestine (Arab State)55% of land goes to the Jews45% of land goes to the ArabsTotal Population: 1.8 million1.2 million Arabs living in area600,000 Jews living in areaJerusalem:“international city” controlled by UNAccepted by JewsRejected by ArabsNo Arab on committee
5 1948 War May 14,1948: Israel is officially formed May 15, 1948: Israel attacked by six Arab nationsApprox. 750,000 Palestinians fled or were forced to leaveMay 15, 1948: Israel attacked by six neighboring Arab nations—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,Syria1% of Jewish population dies in War—6,000 people
6 1948 WarOver approx. 800,000 Jews in Arab countries also fled or were forced to leave for IsraelIsrael After War: Jordan controls West Bank and Egypt controls Gaza StripIsrael takes much of Palestine and western part of Jerusalem—eastern part including religious sites taken by Jordan
8 Perspectives on Partition and 1948 War IsraeliCreates state of IsraelWar of IndependenceHolocaust and other periods of violence against Jews throughout the past centuries might not have happened if there was a Jewish HomelandPalestinianThey had no inputNabka: “Catastrophe”Land set aside for Palestinians now under control of Arab countries or IsraelPicture of building is where the dec of independence was signed in Tel Aviv.Last spring for the first time ever, Israeli textbooks are mentioning the Nabka. This is huge and was very controversial.
9 1967 War Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war Egypt cuts Israel off from Red SeaIncreased terrorist attacks from Palestinians in Syria and JordanIsraeli surprise attack against EgyptSix days later Israel defeats Egypt, Syria, JordanTakes control of West Bank , Gaza StripControl of all of JerusalemControl of Sinai (from Egypt)Control of Golan Heights (from Syria)As a result of the 1967 War, Israel looses 800 troops, Arabs loose over 15,000Palestinians living in Jerusalem could have either Israeli or Jordanian citizenship—most picked JordanianPalestinians living in other areas conquored by Israel not given citizenship choice, but came under Israeli control
10 Perspectives on 1967 WarPalestinian and Arab NationsWill accept Israel at pre-1967 War borders.Creation of Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) prior to war to work for Palestinian State. Violent segments within group begin to dominate through 1960’s and 1970’s led by Yasser Arafat.West Bank and Gaza Strip become known as “Occupied Territories”IsraeliLand gained is a buffer zone to deter future attacksBegin to build settlements in West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan HeightsShows Israel is there to stay and must be dealt withPicture is of Golan Heights—body of water is Sea of Galilee. Big source of water for Israel
11 Peace Efforts Part I1977: Egypt (led by Anwar Sadat) engages Israel in peace efforts1978: Camp David AccordsU.S. President Carter invites Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to Camp DavidEgypt recognizes Israel as a countryIsrael gives Sinai back to EgyptFirst agreement between Israel and an Arab nationTop picture is of Sharm El Sheik on Red Sea (Egypt) was under Israeli control until Camp David. Popular diving/beach resort. Many Israelis visit.Bottom picture is of Mt. Sinai showing landscape of the Sinai Penninsula.
12 Perspectives on Camp David Accords Palestinian and Arab NationsIsraeliSadat assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremistsEgypt &Israel still at peaceWilling to trade land it has conquered for peaceArab Countries at peace w/ israel will accept Israeli stamped passports at passport control. But those who are not—syria, Saudi, Lebanon, you can not enter those countries w/ an Israeli stamp in your passport.
13 The IntifadaPalestinian Uprising that begins in the territories and then in Jerusalem.Organized protests and rock throwing against Israeli troopsBegins in 1987Over approx Palestinians KilledOver approx. 400 Israelis KilledStats from
14 Peace Efforts Part 2 Oslo Peace Process In the mid 1990’s, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat met to begin to work out a peace deal based on Palestinian acceptance of existence of Israel.Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremistPicture of site in Tel Aviv were Rabin was killed by a Jewish extremist who was a student at Bar-Ilan unversity (a religiously affiliated university near Tel Aviv). Rabin had just finished making a speech in support of peace when he was killed.
15 Second Intifada By 2000, peace process has faded. In 2000, Israeli political figure Ariel Sharon visits Temple Mount (Western Wall area and Al Asqua Mosque area) in JerusalemViolence EruptsBuses, discos, hotels, fast food restaurants, etc blown up by Palestinian Suicide BombersIsraeli military responds with forceFrom 2000-March 2008Over 4000 Palestinians killedOver 900 Israeli killed by PalestiniansStats from B’tselem.orgSharon becomes PM in 2001
16 Current Issues“Two-State Solution” Palestinian and Israeli leaders backed by US and other countries working towards the existence of Israel and of Palestine. But the following issues remain:Jerusalem: Both sides want it as their capitolIsraeli Settlers: For religious, political, and security reasons a large number of Israelis have formed settlements in the occupied territories.Security Barrier: Israel is building a wall between it and the West Bank. Israel sees this as a way to prevent further suicide bombings. In some areas, the wall goes into the West Bank to protect Israeli settlements.Movement: Palestinians need permission to leave West Bank. Israelis see this as needed security, but limits jobs, health care, education, etc.Terrorist Organizations like Hamas (which controls the Gaza Strip) and Hezbollah (based in Lebanon and who was at war with Israel in the summer of 2006) continue to fire rockets into IsraelThe UN’s issue w/ the security barrier is not the building of it, it’s that it goes into Palestinian territory. In several cases, it divides Palestinian farmers from their olive groves, kids from their schools. What if the guard at the checkpoint doesn’t show up to work that day.Stats show there has been a decrease in terrorist activity since wall began to go up.Palestinians must go through checkpoints to enter Israel.Security barrier includes fence, wall, ditches, mounds of dirt, etc.Israel has just stated it is ready to trade Golan Heights to Syria for peace. Possible issue could be Sea of Galilee in Golan Heights as it is a major water source for the area.Most Palestinians believe they will not be able to return to former land and homes and many are willing to sacrifice that for peace.Jerusalem: The US government as well as many other nations does not refer to Jerusalem as Jerusalem, Israel. If you were to send a letter to our Consulate in Jerusalem, you’d send it to Jerusalem, Jerusalem. This reflects the idea that control of Jerusalem is still disputed.Picture of wallEcon conditions in the WB are much lower than in Israel