Presentation on theme: "SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 2: A Brief History"— Presentation transcript:
1 SS474: TERRORISM & COUNTERTERRORISM Lesson 2: A Brief History Agenda:1) Review assignment #12) History of Terrorism
2 Review: Terrorism and Early History ThugsZealotsAssassinsFrench RevolutionEarly terrorism in the U.S.“Sons of Liberty” – provoked by Stamp Act, organized mobs to tar and feather colonists still loyal to the king, forcing many to flee the country and settle in CanadaKlu Klux Klan – effective in spreading fear; forced federal govt. to end Reconstruction
3 A Brief History of Modern Terrorism Roughly 130 year history4 Waves, Each roughly years (David Rapoport)Anarchist WaveAnti-Colonial/Decolonization WaveNew Left Wave/Leftist anti-Western sentimentReligious Inspiration WaveIssue to consider for each wave:Doctrines of terrorTechnology (especially for communication/propoganda)Avenues of funding and support
4 1) Anarchist Wave Roughly 1880s to 1920s Examples: Doctrines: Assassinations of Pres. McKinley, Spanish Prime Minister, etc.Doctrines:Nechaev’s Revolutionary Catechism; Bakunin; Kropotkin’s “propaganda by the deed” – words are not enough . . .Technology:communication and transportation patterns; telegraph; daily newspapers; railroads; technology shrank time and spaceweapons: mostly guns and knives; but invention of dynamite helped launch new terrorist capabilitiesFinancing:Bank robberies, extortion, etc.
5 Anarchist WaveTsar Alexander II (1861) frees the serfs (1/3 of Russia’s population) and promises funds for them to use to buy landUnable to provide those funds, raised expectations lead to widespread anger, disappointment, unrest; violence, assassinationsTerrorists seeking to provoke state to the point where the reaction leads to popular revoltAnarchists seldom successful – but there are exceptionsTsarist Russia, Narodnaya Volya (“people’s will”)Serbia, Narodna Obrana (splinter: Black Hand)Response of several governments was to create plain-clothes police forces (FBI, Scotland Yard, Russian Okhrana, etc.); most are still in action today1919: President Wilson authorizes round up of all Anarchists; ship to Soviet Union1920 bombing of Wall Street
6 2) Anti-Colonial Wave Circa 1920s – 1960s Examples Doctrines: Irgun (precursor to Lehi), the “Stern Gang” – Zionist extremismSouth AfricaVietnam?AlgeriaDoctrines:Freedom for indigenous peoples to decide own system, structureAnti-racism, imperialism; fewer assassinations then previous wave; attacks mainly on police, military, colonial govt. targetsTechnology:Faster means of communication, transportation, money transferFinancing:Diaspora support, particular from immigrants to developed Western countries
7 The “Battle of Algiers” Crenshaw case studyPolitical contexts for local support of terrorism?Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies (FLN, ZAA, OAS/French settlers, FFFLN, ALN, etc.)Revolutionary, counter-revolutionary: all terrorists?Remember objective of Narodnaya Volya Did terrorism or state reaction lead to popular insurrection?Description of French counterterrorism measures taken; military response re: Muslim population?Algerian terrorism in France (2nd front)Successes or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change, but what kind?
8 3) New Left Wave Circa 1960s – 1990s Examples Italian Red BrigadesETA (Spain, France)LTTE (Sri Lanka)PLO (Middle East)West German RAF (Baader-Meinhof Gang)Japanese Red ArmyAmerican Weather UndergroundPeru (Sendero Luminoso)New Doctrines: strategies for political change, Marxism, separatism - Carlos Marighella, Minimanual of the Urban GuerillaTechnology:Global sharing of new timing devices, other trigger switches for explosivesAirplane hijackings
9 New Left WaveBuilt on widespread anti-Western political undercurrent throughout former European colonies as well as sentiments within EuropeSupported by Vietnam experienceVietcong “David defeats Goliath” idea fuels other groups around the worldAnti-Western political movements encouraged by Soviets, Iran, Libya, N. KoreaOf course, this came back to bite the Soviets . . .AfghanistanChechnya
10 The “Troubles” IRA: Anti-colonial, New Left, or something else? Began the struggle during the 1920sProvisional IRA formed 1969; ceasefire 1997“Real IRA” bombings as recent as 2003Loyalists vs. Republicans and Protestants vs. CatholicsJackson case study of PIRAPolitical contexts for local support of terrorism? (policy, economics)Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies; innovations?Targeting (e.g., mortar attack on 10 Downing street); ‘own goals’Transition in organizational structure – why?Description of the British counterterrorism measures takenOrganizational/strategic learning, evolutionSuccesses or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change?
11 The “Shining Path”Extreme left revolutionary ideology (a flavor of Maoism); called themselves Communist Party of PeruA “people’s war” of attrition; goal is to “liberate” the common Peruvian from exploitation by the elites, and delegitimize the central government; focus 1st on rural areas– over 25,000 incidents; 23,000 killed; Drug tradeGovernment responses validated claims made by SenderoPalmer case studyPolitical contexts for local support of terrorism? (isolation, poverty)Description of the terrorists, tactics, strategies (cult of personality)Description of the counterterrorism measures takenSuccesses or failures? Effectiveness in producing political change?
12 The FARC Extreme left revolutionary ideology Focus: delegitimize the central government; focus 1st on rural areasDrug tradeReflections on Ortiz case study?
13 4) Religious Inspiration Wave Current wave of terrorismReligious Cults (e.g., Aum Shinrikyo)Christian extremistsIslamist extremists – JihadIran – 1979 revolutionAfghanistan – 1980s Jihad to oust the SovietsIraq – 2003-? Jihad to oust the AmericansDoctrines:Fatwas against the West; oust them from holy lands; late 1990s shift from near enemy to far enemyTechnology:Increasing sophistication of IEDs;Use of “ultimate smart bomb” (suicide terrorists)Weapons of Mass Disruption
14 HamasRole of social welfare, education, religion, social networksRole of Israeli occupation of Gaza, West Bank, etc.Reflections on Cragin case study?Jemmah IslamiyaRole of education, social networks, religion, al Qaeda connectionRole of Indonesia’s government, geography, societyReflections on Ramakrishna case study?
15 Religious Inspiration Wave – Islamic Extremism Islam is fastest growing religion in U.S. & elsewhere; estimated over 1.2 billion followers worldwide.More than a religion: a system of laws, courts, traditions, customs, etc. to govern all aspects of life“Islam is the answer” – Muslim BrotherhoodDifference in relationship w/GodLack of formal hierarchy (no “Pope”)Sunni-Shia split; Shiites reject the “truth” held by Sunnis
17 Role of Islam in Society In the Islamic way of thinking religion is related to politics - but this does not mean man does not need the rationality of modern scienceInstead, it means that a devoted religious man should try to co-ordinate his political reactions with his religious values.DR MOHSEN KADIVAR, Iranian cleric
18 Role of Islam in Society “In the Islamic system of values and from the point of view of Muslim fundamentalists, religion cannot be separated from any aspect of life.”“Religion is omnipresent in every aspect of a Muslim individual's private and social life from the economy to social relations.”“What does harm to the society is not religion - it is the way in which some of the rulers take advantage of religion”DR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian cleric
20 Revolutionary Art"The Vampires of the West and East all feeding on the Muslim Ummah."
21 Muslim clergy and soldiers clasp hands in friendship atop an armored personnel carrier.
22 Radical Islam Bernard Lewis: - Who did this to us? - Blaming the West vs. corrupt regimes vs. each other- Islam and liberal democracy - compatible?Communication Filters vis-à-vis West . . .
23 Radical IslamThe radical neo-fundamentalists view the action as more important than the result. Thus, individual jihad becomes more important than victory. The goal is to serve God, not to achieve a certain political agenda. The results will come when God wills it.- Magnus Norell
25 Reminder: Domestic Terrorism in the U.S. MilitiasOklahomaAny separatists?Policy terroristsAbortionEnvironmental
26 History: Discussion Questions What patterns and trends of historical terrorism inform our understanding of future threats?C2Strategic goals, objectivesWeapons, tacticsTargetingFundraising/FriendraisingSimilar outcomes re: group existence, changes in political environmentWhat else?Future projections?Who will likely turn to terrorism, and why?
27 History: Discussion Questions Why do people resort to violence in pursuit of political or ideological ends?Political contextsSocial contextsOther options to achieve goals?Implications for government policy?
28 History: Discussion Questions What motivates terrorists?Vision - “shape the future”Power to achieve visionBelief in higher causeWhat else?What role do economics, psychology, sociology or other grievances play in motivating terrorist groups?
29 History: Discussion Questions What can we learn from historical examples of state response to terrorist organizations?What works?What doesn’t?Why?