Where is Sarajevo ? Capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina Kingdoms and Countries of Austria- Hungary
Immediate cause of WWI - Sarajevo Incident 28 June, 1914 Archduke Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary ’ s future Emperor and his wife) Archduke FerdinandSophie ChotekGavrilo Princip Assassin VERY IMPORTANT !!!
Austria-Hungary 2nd largest empire in Europe Many ethnic groups Divided into many kingdoms Wanted to be a powerful state Target: Balkan States
Archduke Ferdinand Future emperor of Austria-Hungary heir to the throne) Paid a royal visit with his wife to Sarajevo on the national day of Bosnia assassinated by a Bosnian, Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip Born in Bosnia- Herzegovina in 1895 Member of the Serbian nationalist secret society “Black Hand” (supported by the Serbian government to against Austria-Hungary) Imprisoned by Austria- Hungary after assassination Died of tuberculosis in 1918 during his imprisonment
Archduke Francis Ferdinand ( 斐迪南大公 ), Austria-Hungary’s future emperor, and his wife visited Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. Events of the incidents
Route of Assassination in Sarajevo Princip Bridge
Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian student named Gavrilo Princip ( 普林 西普 ). Gavrilo Princip
The arrest of Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip was a member of the Black Hand, an anti- Austrian Serbian group. Austria-Hungary accused Serbia of organising the assassination.
Letter of Emperor Franz Joseph ( 法蘭斯 約瑟夫 ) of Austria-Hungary to Kaiser William II, Vienna, July 2, 1914 The attack directed against my poor nephew (Archduke Francis Ferdinand) is the direct result of the agitation carried out by Russian and Serbian Pan-Slavists… But this will not be possible unless Serbia, which is at present the pivot of Pan-Slavist policy, is eliminated as a political factor in the Balkans… Which country did Austria-Hungary believe should be held responsible for the Sarajevo-Incident? What action did Austria-Hungary take?
Results of the incident Austria-Hungary believed the incident provided a good chance to crush Serbia. It sent an ultimatum to Serbia. 1. Suppress all anti-Austrian activities in Serbia; 2. Replace all anti-Austrian government officials; 3. Allow Austrian-Hungarian officials to enter Serbia to see the above two points were carried out. Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum to Serbia, July 23, 1914
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. Austrian-Hungarian soldiers in WWI
June 28, 1914Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand July 23, 1914Austria-Hungary’s ultimatum to Serbia July 24, 1914Serbia asks Russia for help July 25, 1914Serbia refuses to accept all the demands of Austria-Hungary July 28, 1914Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 30, 1914Russia mobilises to support Serbia July 31, 1914Germany demands Russian demobilisation and French neutrality August 1, 1914Germany declares war on Russia August 3, 1914Germany declares war on France and invades Belgium August 4, 1914Britain declares war on Germany How a local war turns into a general war
Serbia The eagle “I don’t quite like his (the cock’s) attitude. Somebody must be backing him.” 1. Identify the countries represented by the eagle and the bear. ______________________ ______________________ The twin-headed eagle represents Austria-Hungary and the bear represents Russia. (1+1 marks) Cartoonist’s view Who is the power behind the cock?
2. Why was the cock (Serbia) unafraid of the eagle? Explain your answer with reference to the source, and using relevant historical facts. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ In the cartoon, the cock was very confident because it knew the bear was behind the rock watching the twin-headed eagle. According to historical facts, Serbia was not afraid of the attack from Austria-Hungary because it was supported by Russia. (2+2 marks)
3. Did the cartoonist believe that there was a conflict only between the eagle and the cock? Explain your answer with reference to the cartoon. ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ No. According to the cartoon, the bear was supporting the cock against the twin-headed eagle, showing that Russia would support Serbia in the event of war with Austria-Hungary. (1+3 marks)
Table of assessment War responsibility? ( the appropriate answer) Reason Austria- Hungary Yes No Germany Yes No Russia Yes No France Yes No Britain Yes No
The Sarajevo Incident June 28 1914 Archduke Ferdinand’s car left the town hall in Sarajevo Archduke Ferdinand photographed on the day of his assassination. Ferdinand’s body lying in state. VERY IMPORTANT !!!
Results of Sarajevo Incident (28 June, 1914) Austria-Hungary Got the promise of unlimited support from Germany (early July 1914) Decided to crush Serbia in a war 23 July 1914, sent an ultimatum to Serbia Used Serbian refusal as an excuse to go to war with Serbia Serbia Arrested Princip Got an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary Accepted most of the terms in the ultimatum Refused to allow Austrian officials to enter Serbia (violate Serbian internal sovereignty) Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia a month after the Sarajevo Incident Austro-Serbian War
How the Austro-Serbian War Became a General War (28 July – 4 August 1914) 28 July Austro-Serbian War began Serbia Austria-Hungary Russia 30 July Russia mobilized (sent troops) to Serbia (support) 31 July Germany demanded Russian demobilization + French neutrality (remain neutral) 1 Aug Germany declared war on Russia (no reply) 3 Aug Germany declared war on France + attacked Belgium (Schlieffen Plan) 4 Aug Britain declared war on Germany First World War (WWI) started
The Allies portrayed Kaiser William II (King of Germany) as an aggressor who wanted to conquer Europe.