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1 PowerPoint Presentation
Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois 1

2 Footings, Foundations, and Concrete
Chapter 17 Footings, Foundations, and Concrete 2

3 Frost Penetration Chart
Average depth of frost penetration in inches. (US Department of Commerce Weather Bureau) 3

4 Footing Shapes Footings increase supporting capacity of the foundation wall. Most houses require footings. Soil bearing capacity and weight of house determine the size and type of footing. Footings are generally poured concrete. Footing size is typically based on the foundation wall thickness. 4

5 Footing Shapes A footing expands load bearing area. 5

6 Footing Shapes General proportions of a footing. 6

7 Footing Specifications
Footing thickness generally equals the foundation wall thickness. Footing width is twice the wall thickness. Poor soil may require wider footings. Settling occurs during construction. Prevent uneven settling. Check code recommendations. Use steel reinforcing bars. 7

8 Fireplace and Chimney Footings
Fireplace and chimney footings are more massive than regular house footings. Should be reinforced with steel. 12 inches thick. Extend 6 inches beyond the perimeter of the chimney. Cast integrally with house footing. 8

9 Foundation Walls Extend from the first floor to the footing.
May also be basement walls. Variety of materials may be used: Cast concrete, concrete block, pressure-treated wood, and stone or brick. Four basic types of foundation walls: T-foundation, slab foundation, pier and post foundation, and wood foundation. 9

10 Foundation Walls Foundation wall materials. 10

11 Foundation Walls Foundation types. 11

12 T-Foundations The T-foundation is the most common type of residential foundation. Name is derived from the shape. Footing and foundation wall are usually separate parts. Footings are usually cast in forms. Variety of applications of T-foundation. 12

13 T-Foundation Application
8" basement wall and footing. 13

14 Post (Column) Foundation
A pipe or adjustable jack post is frequently used to support a beam. This is a column or post foundation. 14

15 Post (Column) Foundation

16 Pilasters Pilasters may be used to strengthen basement walls.
Built at the same time as the wall. Masonry wall pilasters are usually 8" x 16" in an 8" thick wall. Distance between pilasters should not exceed 15' in an 8" wall and 18' in a 10" wall. Pilasters are also used to support beams. 16

17 Pilasters 17

18 Firecuts A firecut is used when floor joists are placed directly into solid masonry walls. Each joist end is cut at an angle to prevent wall damage in case of fire. 18

19 Water Removal Method Drain tile placement. 19

20 Floor Slabs A concrete floor slab should be placed on 4" to 6" of compacted sand. Slab thickness is 4" minimum. Slabs should not be bonded to footings or columns. A 1" thick sand cushion may be used to separate the slab from the footing. 20

21 Floor Slab Section 21

22 Chapter 14 The Foundation Plan 22

23 The Foundation Plan The foundation plan is a plan view drawing in section. Shows the location and size of footings, piers, columns, foundation walls, and supporting beams. Usually drawn after the floor plan and elevations have been roughed out. 23

24 Foundation Plan Features
The following features are shown on a foundation plan: Footings for walls, piers, and columns. Foundation walls. Piers and columns (posts). Dwarf walls. Partial walls, doors, and bath fixtures (basement). Openings in foundation wall. (continued) 24

25 Foundation Plan Features
Beams and pilasters. Direction, size, and spacing of floor joists or trusses. Drains and sump (if required). Details of foundation and footing construction. Complete dimensions and notes. Scale of drawing. 25

26 Foundation Plan Symbols

27 Drawing a Foundation Plan
Completed foundation plan. 27

28 Chapter 13 The Floor Plan 28

29 Windows and Doors Use a centerline to locate the opening for windows and doors in frame walls. Dimension to the side of the opening in a masonry wall. Openings for windows are sash width. Openings for doors are actual width. Sills are drawn for windows and exterior doors. Door swing should be indicated. 29

30 Window and Door Location
Windows and doors should be located in a frame wall using a centerline. Door swing is also shown. 30

31 Stairs and Fireplaces Only information about the basic size and location of stairs and fireplaces needs to be recorded on the floor plan. For stairs, show direction of flight, number of risers, and width of stairs. For a fireplace, show basic depth and width, opening design, and location. Use either simplified or detailed symbol. 31

32 Stairs on Floor Plan Information about a set of stairs that is usually included on the floor plan. 32

33 Room Names Room names help communicate the plan to others.
Room names should be 3/16" high. Room names should be in the center of the room. Approximate room size should appear below the name. 33

34 Material Symbols Material symbols or material hatch patterns are used to denote each material. Use a material symbol whenever the material should be identified. If the symbol is not a standard one, identify it. 34

35 Material Symbols 35

36 Material Symbols 36

37 Dimensioning Dimensions on a floor plan show size and location of the features. Proper placement of dimensions requires good judgment. Locate dimensions where one would logically look for them. In architectural drafting, dimension lines are continuous lines with the dimension figure placed above the line. 37

38 Dimensioning Dimension figures are always parallel to the dimension line. Be consistent with the type of termination symbol used for dimension lines. Move dimension lines out from drawing. Space dimension lines 1/4" or 3/8" apart. Make leaders no longer than 2". 38

39 Dimensioning Dimensions are recorded in feet and inches.
Feet and inch marks may be omitted. Dimensions less than 1' are usually indicated as 1/2", 2", 6", etc. Dimension interior frame walls to the center of the wall. Dimension exterior frame walls to the outside of the stud wall. 39

40 Dimensioning Recommended method of dimensioning frame wall construction. 40

41 Dimensioning Solid masonry walls (cast concrete, block, brick, or stone) are usually dimensioned as shown. 41

42 Dimensioning Brick veneer walls are dimensioned to the outside of the stud wall. Solid masonry walls are dimensioned to the outside of the wall. Overall dimensions are needed to provide the total length and width of the structure or major parts of the structure. 42

43 Dimensioning Add up partial dimensions to be sure they equal the overall dimensions. Notes are often necessary to present information that cannot be represented by dimensions or symbols. Notes should be read from the bottom of the sheet. 43

44 Scale and Sheet Identification
Residential floor plans are usually drawn at 1/4" = 1'-0". C-size paper is generally large enough. Number the sheets in the package. Sheet 1 of 6, 2 of 6, etc., works well. Sheet numbers should be placed in the lower right-hand corner. 44

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