Some of the signaling pathways are well known such as the insulin and epinephrine pathways
ERK-MAPK - p38 MAPK - JNK-MAPK - PI3K/Akt Not so well known are the signal-transduction pathways that regulate transcription and translation of many different proteins: the ERK-MAPK, p38-MAPK, JNK-Mapk, PI3K/Akt, and the “Nfκβ” pathways. These STPs regulate synthesis of the many proteins that are necessary for maintaining cell function and for producing proinflammatory molecules following various stresses. They also regulate synthesis of proteins in our stem cells and progenitor cells that are necessary for the different functions of cell division.
A sequence of DNA molecules codes for a sequence of amino acids of a protein. Different sequences of DNA molecules (genes) code for different proteins (gene products). Transcription of DNA sequence into mRNA sequence is tightly controlled by a variety of transcription factors (proteins) than can initiate, enhance, or repress transcription; transcription factors that are in turn controlled by a variety of metabolic, hormonal, or other signaling processes. Just imagine what might happen if you screw up any of the processes of metabolism, or hormone function, or signal transduction, or get toxic damage to the structure of any DNA base!
Regulation of Signal Transduction (S-T) Pathways Activities of S-T pathways are regulated by a variety of growth factors, hormones, calcium, and ROS. Note that both Calcium and ROS affect enzymes that activate S- T pathways. Thus control of Calcium and of ROS are very important for controlling S-T. If excessive S-T activity happens for an extended period of time (many hours to many days; or all the time…) then they will produce a variety of inflammatory signaling molecules that produces an inflammatory response… Leading to even more disregulated S-T activity and more ROS…
Insufficiencies in antioxidant and redox control-related nutrients lead to exaggerated ST responses as well as enhanced damage due to lack of protection from excessive oxidizing agents.
Too many antioxidant nutrient and antioxidant compounds can lead to insufficient ST-responses due to stressors and lead to inadequate stress responses and to inadequate protection from oxidizing agents.
Only through optimal nutrient intake can appropriate regulation of STP-activities will occur along with both enhanced redox control and enhanced protection from various oxidants will result. So… if you want this…..